Manufacturing of Solid Recovered Fuels (SRF) for Energy Recovery Processes
© TK Verlag - Fachverlag für Kreislaufwirtschaft (9/2016)
This contribution describes manufacturing processes and quality of three types of Solid Recovered Fuels – i.e. SRF low quality, SRF medium quality and SRF premium quality – that are used in energy recovery plants. In total, two case studies are reported. First case study is about the external processing and confectioning of non-hazardous household, industrial and commercial mixed wastes as well as the internal treatment and homogenisation of various waste fractions at the incineration plant for production of SRF low quality that is utilized in a Waste to Energy (WtE) stationary Fluidized Bed Incinerator. In the second case study, production of SRF medium quality and SRF premium quality that are used for substitution of primary fuels like coal and petrol coke in the cement kiln is described. Finally, data on SRF quality of all three investigated waste types will be summarized and discussed.

Complex Approach towards the Assessment of Waste-to-Energy Plants’ Future Potential
© TK Verlag - Fachverlag für Kreislaufwirtschaft (9/2016)
There is a fierce debate ongoing about future recycling targets for municipal solid waste (MSW) at the European level. The old linear concept of waste management is being changed into a circular economy. Since the separation yield and post-recycling MSW (later on residual solid waste, RSW) production have an opposite relationship, assuming the constant production of particular components (paper, plastics etc.), lower RSW rates are also expected. This is having a negative effect on Waste-to-energy (WtE); especially in terms of its future optimum capacity in particular countries.

Significance of and Challenges for Flue Gas Treatment Systems in Waste Incineration
© TK Verlag - Fachverlag für Kreislaufwirtschaft (9/2016)
Flue gas cleaning downstream of waste incineration plants had its origins in the increased construction and deployment of such plants to counter rising air pollution in the nineteen-sixties. Back then, the ever-growing burden on the environment caused lawmakers to start enacting emission limits for air pollution control. An unceasing series of environmental scandals and increasingly better analytical methods and measuring instrumentation led to a constant reduction of the emission limits and, consequently, to ongoing adjustment and further development of the necessary process stages in flue gas cleaning. As a result, today minimum emissions can be reached even under the challenging condition of deployment of a very inhomogeneous fuel (waste) and, hence, waste incineration today is no longer a key contributor to air pollution. Today, the need for flue gas cleaning is not called into doubt anymore and has long become a matter of course in the industry and in society at large. Apart from ensuring efficient elimination of noxious gases, the focus of today’s further developments is on issues such as energy efficiency, minimization of input materials and recovery and recycling of by-products from flue gas cleaning as valuable raw materials. These issues are also deemed to be key challenges, especially when it comes to selecting sites for new plants in such a manner that potential synergies can be exploited. Such aspects will also have to be considered in the plans for the predicted mega-cities of the future.

The Market for Mechanical Biological Waste Treatment Plants in Europe
© TK Verlag - Fachverlag für Kreislaufwirtschaft (9/2016)
Both the number and capacities of mechanical biological treatment plants (MBT plants) have increased significantly in the past years. In late 2015, about 490 MBT plants were active in Europe, reaching a disposal capacity of circa 47 million annual tons. However, despite its steady growth, the MBT market showed volatility. The market development peaked in 2005/2006, with the commissioning of about 80 plants with a capacity of circa 9 million annual tons. In 2015, about 13 new facilities with a capacity of around 2.2 million annual tons went online. The MBT market has also shifted geographically, because the European countries have started implementing the EU Landfill Directive in different years. After MBT plants had mainly been constructed in Southern Europe, Germany and Austria before 2006, investments shifted towards the UK and more recently, towards Eastern Europe. In the coming years, an ambivalent development is expected. Whereas further MBT plants will be constructed in countries still sending large shares of their MSW to landfills, MBT technology will experience increasing pressure in the countries with low landfilling shares.

The Added Value of the Balance Method for Waste-to-Energy Operators and National Authorities
© TK Verlag - Fachverlag für Kreislaufwirtschaft (9/2016)
Different directives of the European Union may require operators of Waste to Energy WTE plants to monitor the composition of their waste feed with respect to the Content of biomass and fossil organic matter. The mass fractions of both materials are not only of relevance for the amount of fossil and thus climate relevant CO2 emissions of the plant, but also for the ratio of renewable energy generated, as biomass in wastes is considered as renewable energy source.

Regenerative Thermal Oxidation in the Cement Industry – Technology and Operation –
© TK Verlag - Fachverlag für Kreislaufwirtschaft (9/2016)
The cement industry plays a pivotal role in meeting society’s needs for housing and infrastructure. Cement is one of the most important and widely used commodities in the world and is therefore a key ingredient of economic development. Current world production of cement is well above 4,500 million tons per year and growing.

International Experience of Risks Sharing between Public and Private Entities in Energy-from-Waste Plants Construction
© TK Verlag - Fachverlag für Kreislaufwirtschaft (9/2016)
Imagine that you are the mayor of a city named Metropolis and are in Charge of School logistics. Before doing so, you might have to ask yourself a few essential questions. What kind of transportation will you provide? Who will it benefit: students, staff or both? Where will the service be provided? When will it be provided: in the evening, morning? And finally, how much will it cost? All these essential questions need to be answered before starting to implement this project and to buy your buses. By doing so, planning, financing, building and operating the chosen mean of Transportation will become an easier task. After that, your political decisions will direct the choice of implication of private sector on the different aspects of your project.

3. Other Forms of Energy, EQF 4 Premium
© AIRE (Adapting and installing an international vocational training for renewable energy) (1/2012)
Which knowledge, skills and competences does an AIRE specialist need as far as usual forms of energy are concerned?

3. Other Forms of Energy, EQF 3 Premium
© AIRE (Adapting and installing an international vocational training for renewable energy) (1/2012)
Which knowledge, skills and competences does an AIRE specialist need as far as usual forms of energy are concerned?

Contracting Solution for Energy-Supply of a Food-Production Site
© Wasteconsult international (6/2009)
Putting the RDF CHP-plant Stavenhagen (Refused Derived Fuels Combined Heat and Power Plant) in operation by the contractor Nehlsen AG, enabled supplying the company Pfanni, potatoes based food products, with process vapor and electricity, not from a primary fossil fuel but from a secondary solid fuel, generated from a MBT Mechanical- Biological-Waste-Treatment plant. The advantages of this innovative energy supply process are saving of fossil energy resources and thermal remediation of waste, which is a consequent completion with the principles of waste recycling economy. The remains quality of this process complies perfectly with the preconditions of waste for landfill discharge. In addition this plant secures current jobs of the food and food-supporting industry, including creation of new jobs within the RDF CHP-plant. Last but not least the MBT plant represent a real investment alternative for energy supply at the company Pfanni. Keywords: RDF CHP Plant, MBT Plant, Company Pfanni, Process steam and electricity 1 General Description of the CHP Stavenhagen 2 Incineration Unit and Boiler 3 Turbo Generator Kit and Air Capacitor 4 Flue Gas Purification 5 Some interesting Remarks

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