Bioenergy in the Baltic Sea Region, Nordic Countries and EU
© Agrar- und Umweltwissenschaftliche Fakultät Rostock (6/2013)
Bioenergy gives Europe the best opportunity to reduce GHG emission and secure its energy supply. However, the biomass production should not create additional pressure on the environment. Therefore, for the presented calculations, biomass for energy utilization originates from the cropland of the existing agricultural areas. Permanent grassland, areas of agro-forestry and pasture have not been taken into account.

Subsidies or Free Markets to Promote Renewables?
© Lexxion Verlagsgesellschaft mbH (12/2012)
OECD governments are reviewing government outlays to assess whether certain expenditures could be reduced or eliminated. Energy subsidies and other supports are among those areas being reviewed. While perverse energy subsidies should be eliminated, the authors argue that support for renewable energy remain a priority, both on climate change grounds, but also due to the market advantages fossil fuels enjoy vis-à-vis renewables. Policymakers have instruments at their disposal that promote renewables through the power of markets in the form of renewable portfolio standards and feed-in tariffs. The authors argue for the continued use of these instruments in the medium term.

Failed With Subsidies? – Try CO2 Tax!
© Lexxion Verlagsgesellschaft mbH (9/2012)
Subsidies and feed-in tariffs have become a pre-condition for wide-scale renewable energy deployment. However, outcomes after twenty years of generous technologyspecific support are diametrically opposed to policy objectives. This paper examines the causes of this apparent “green paradox”, and differentiates subsidies and CO2 tax’s influence on firms’ strategic decisions. I posit that subsidies choose a priori technology champions that ignore technological obsolescence risks. In contrast, CO2 taxes provide pricing signals that inform exit decisions from polluting technologies. By leaving firms to decide on their technological responses, CO2 tax penalties could encourage low carbon technology innovations.

Promoting Renewable Energies in the Philippines: Policies and Challenges
© Lexxion Verlagsgesellschaft mbH (9/2012)
The potential renewable energy capacity of the Philippines is estimated to be 2,600 MW of geothermal, 13,097 MW of hydroelectric, 70,000 MW of wind, 170,000 MW of ocean energy, 323 MMBFOE of biomass, and 5.1 kilowatt-hour (kWh)/m2/day of solar energy.

Joint Support and Efficient Offshore Investment: Market and Transmission Connection Barriers and Solutions
© Lexxion Verlagsgesellschaft mbH (9/2012)
Different support schemes are applied for the promotion of renewable energy sources in EU Member States. Current EU legislation opens opportunities for international cooperation to achieve national renewable targets more efficiently, either by statistical transfers, joint projects or joint support schemes. This article investigates their interplay with support schemes and applies the results to offshore wind energy. With all North Sea neighbouring countries planning offshore wind installations and considering a coordinated offshore grid, this constitutes a good starting point for coordinated action. Two case studies on the regulatory combinations of joint projects financed under tendering and tradable green certificates as a joint support scheme are contrasted, addressing main barriers and possible solutions. Joint projects are an interesting option in the midterm, whereas joint support schemes may be more attractive on a longer time horizon.

Greenhouse gas Monitoring for optimization of process Efficiency of Biogas plants
© European Compost Network ECN e.V. (6/2012)
Within the research project "KLIMONEFF" modern optical remote sensing (ORS) technology is applied as aninnovative approach to detect methane losses of diverse parts of biogas facilities in order to reduce their greenhouse gas(GHG) losses and optimize their energy efficiency. An Austrian biogas plant has, therefore, been selected to quantifythe GHG emissions of the entire plant but also methane losses (methane loads) from various plant components for therepresentative period of one year.

6. Customer Service, EQF 4 Premium
© AIRE (Adapting and installing an international vocational training for renewable energy) (1/2012)

6. Customer Service, EQF 3 Premium
© AIRE (Adapting and installing an international vocational training for renewable energy) (1/2012)
Which knowledge, skills and competences does an AIRE specialist need as far as customer service, advising and councelling is concerned?

Mecklenburg Parkland (Country Park) Social Aspects of Bioenergy Development on the Regional Level – Activation and Organization of the Key Planners
© Agrar- und Umweltwissenschaftliche Fakultät Rostock (11/2011)
The ongoing agricultural structure change and the rapid demographic changes of the last 20 years are visible to everyone and can be recognised in the centre of villages located in Mecklenburg-Western Pomerania. Large numbers in job vacancies herald economic changes and the continuing loss of population.

Sustainable bioenergy gives important impetus to green growth in the Baltic Sea region
© Agrar- und Umweltwissenschaftliche Fakultät Rostock (11/2011)
The Baltic Sea region has the potential to become a pioneer in the transformation towards an ecologically sustainable economy.

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