Bioenergy in the Baltic Sea Region, Nordic Countries and EU
© Agrar- und Umweltwissenschaftliche Fakultät Rostock (6/2013)
Bioenergy gives Europe the best opportunity to reduce GHG emission and secure its energy supply. However, the biomass production should not create additional pressure on the environment. Therefore, for the presented calculations, biomass for energy utilization originates from the cropland of the existing agricultural areas. Permanent grassland, areas of agro-forestry and pasture have not been taken into account.

Subsidies or Free Markets to Promote Renewables?
© Lexxion Verlagsgesellschaft mbH (12/2012)
OECD governments are reviewing government outlays to assess whether certain expenditures could be reduced or eliminated. Energy subsidies and other supports are among those areas being reviewed. While perverse energy subsidies should be eliminated, the authors argue that support for renewable energy remain a priority, both on climate change grounds, but also due to the market advantages fossil fuels enjoy vis-à-vis renewables. Policymakers have instruments at their disposal that promote renewables through the power of markets in the form of renewable portfolio standards and feed-in tariffs. The authors argue for the continued use of these instruments in the medium term.

Failed With Subsidies? – Try CO2 Tax!
© Lexxion Verlagsgesellschaft mbH (9/2012)
Subsidies and feed-in tariffs have become a pre-condition for wide-scale renewable energy deployment. However, outcomes after twenty years of generous technologyspecific support are diametrically opposed to policy objectives. This paper examines the causes of this apparent “green paradox”, and differentiates subsidies and CO2 tax’s influence on firms’ strategic decisions. I posit that subsidies choose a priori technology champions that ignore technological obsolescence risks. In contrast, CO2 taxes provide pricing signals that inform exit decisions from polluting technologies. By leaving firms to decide on their technological responses, CO2 tax penalties could encourage low carbon technology innovations.

Promoting Renewable Energies in the Philippines: Policies and Challenges
© Lexxion Verlagsgesellschaft mbH (9/2012)
The potential renewable energy capacity of the Philippines is estimated to be 2,600 MW of geothermal, 13,097 MW of hydroelectric, 70,000 MW of wind, 170,000 MW of ocean energy, 323 MMBFOE of biomass, and 5.1 kilowatt-hour (kWh)/m2/day of solar energy.

Joint Support and Efficient Offshore Investment: Market and Transmission Connection Barriers and Solutions
© Lexxion Verlagsgesellschaft mbH (9/2012)
Different support schemes are applied for the promotion of renewable energy sources in EU Member States. Current EU legislation opens opportunities for international cooperation to achieve national renewable targets more efficiently, either by statistical transfers, joint projects or joint support schemes. This article investigates their interplay with support schemes and applies the results to offshore wind energy. With all North Sea neighbouring countries planning offshore wind installations and considering a coordinated offshore grid, this constitutes a good starting point for coordinated action. Two case studies on the regulatory combinations of joint projects financed under tendering and tradable green certificates as a joint support scheme are contrasted, addressing main barriers and possible solutions. Joint projects are an interesting option in the midterm, whereas joint support schemes may be more attractive on a longer time horizon.

China Biogas potential and ist estimated contribution to climate Change mitigation
© European Compost Network ECN e.V. (6/2012)
China comes first on the world list as to coal and nitrogen-fertilizer consumption, solid waste production and CO2 andCH4 emissions. At the same time, the country has to cope with one of the most rapid periods of urbanization in history.

Import of biomass or using local biomass to reach the renewable energy objectives?
© European Compost Network ECN e.V. (6/2012)
Biomass can be used in lots of different products, applications and industries. All European countries need biomass toreach the European goals for renewable energy. So does Belgium. In Belgium waste and energy policy is a competenceof the Regions. Belgium has three regions: Flanders, Brussels and Wallonia. More as 50 % of the renewable energy sources have to come from using solid biomass in order to reach the goal of 20% energy from renewable sources in 2020.

Greenhouse gas Monitoring for optimization of process Efficiency of Biogas plants
© European Compost Network ECN e.V. (6/2012)
Within the research project "KLIMONEFF" modern optical remote sensing (ORS) technology is applied as aninnovative approach to detect methane losses of diverse parts of biogas facilities in order to reduce their greenhouse gas(GHG) losses and optimize their energy efficiency. An Austrian biogas plant has, therefore, been selected to quantifythe GHG emissions of the entire plant but also methane losses (methane loads) from various plant components for therepresentative period of one year.

Potential of producing bio-Ethanol for use as E10 in Transportation sector from low cost lignocellulosic green waste in Mauritius
© European Compost Network ECN e.V. (6/2012)
Bio-ethanol production from biomass is attracting attention all over the world in view of its use as an alternative source topetrol or in blends with petrol for clean energy technology in the transportation sector. The commercial feasibility of bioethanolproduction from locally available renewable lignocellulosic resources depends both on its ease of availability and itslow cost. Moreover, with the intensive urge in having a clean environment for the present and future generation, theGovernment of Mauritius has adopted a strategy of Building a Green future for Mauritius through the Maurice Ile Durable(MID) concept through a shift to renewable sources of energy from imported fossil fuels.

Ethanol production using complex anaerobic inoculum: Effect of PH on the fermentation profile of Glucose and Xylose
© European Compost Network ECN e.V. (6/2012)
The regulatory and political context in France and Europe gives strong incentives for the development of transportation biofuels during the ten coming years (EU Directive 2003/30/CE). The environmental benefit of using first generation biofuels (agro-fuels) is however questionable (Kalogo et al., 2007). In this framework, the development of bioethanol from other organic resources such as household waste has been reported to be more economically and environmentally attractive. We are therefore working on the coupling of an ethanol production reactor to existing anaerobic digestion processes. Household waste being a complex and heterogeneous matrix, yeast fermentation would require energy-intensive pretreatments. Further Authors: M. Bouix, L. Mazeas, C. Madigou, C.M. RichardA. Guenne, T. Labatut

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