Energy Efficiency in MBS Plants
© Wasteconsult international (5/2015)
The ZAB Nuthe Spree waste treatment facility is located in Niederlehme, about 40 km from Berlin city centre. The plant processes residual waste using mechanical-biological stabilisation technology. The treatment process aims to produce different qualities of RDF and minimise the amount of material consigned to landfill by using a combination of biological drying and mechanical treatment. The plant has an annual capacity of 135,000 tonnes.

Utilization of alternative fuels in substitute fuel, cement and coal-fired power plants in Germany
© Wasteconsult international (5/2015)
High costs for fossil fuels and climate protection cause a higher importance of coincineration of alternative fuels in cement plants and coal-fired power plants. As alternative fuels various waste based materials are used, for example used wood, waste oil or (treated) industrial, trade and municipal wastes. The use is limited especially due to plant technology and legal emission standards. These aspects have a high influence on the markets for co-incineration in coal-fired power plants and cement plants. The following article will provide an overview of the status quo of the mentioned markets and ist developments until 2020.

Offshore Renewable Energy Development in the British Islands: Legal and Political Risk - Part 2: Update and Removing Blockages to Development
© Lexxion Verlagsgesellschaft mbH (12/2013)
In Part 1 of this two-part article, it was argued that: offshore renewable energy development is a central pillar of United Kingdom plans for a largely decarbonised economy by mid-century; in order to reach ambitious climate change targets and budgets, and a related renewables target, step changes are needed in levels of investment in offshore generating stations, electricity transmission networks and related supply chains; and so key aims must be driving down costs and delivering for investors short-term certainty and longer-term visibility (balanced, of course, with a degree of policy flexibility). The first of the two main mechanisms in which the law will play a major part in meeting those key aims, Electricity Market Reform (EMR), was discussed in Part 1, in the context of political and legal risk for investors, to the extent that EMR had emerged by 24 July 2013. It should be noted that the relevant political landscape has changed fundamentally since that date, warranting an update of Part 1 now. The second mechanism, removing barriers to offshore renewable energy development through improving or introducing major infrastructure planning, marine planning, licensing consents, environmental management, transmission network (grid) access and use/amenity accommodation and decommissioning processes, are now discussed in this second part, following the above-mentioned update. Account will again be taken of developments in Devolved Administrations and the Crown Dependencies. The piece is up to date as of 19 September 2013.

Shaping the Electricity Market of the Future
© SRU - Sachverständigenrat für Umweltfragen (11/2013)
Climate-neutral electricity generation is both necessary and possible. It is necessary because the Federal Republic of Germany, together with the other Member States of the European Union, has committed itself to the target of reducing greenhouse gas emissions by at least 80 per cent from 1990 levels by 2050. This is the industrialised countries’ minimum contribution to the internationally agreed target of preventing global average temperature from rising more than 2°C above pre-industrial levels. This target can only be achieved by moving to a power system essentially based on renewable sources, as substantial emission reductions are easier and less expensive to implement in the electricity sector than in other sectors.

Bioenergy in the Baltic Sea Region, Nordic Countries and EU
© Agrar- und Umweltwissenschaftliche Fakultät Rostock (6/2013)
Bioenergy gives Europe the best opportunity to reduce GHG emission and secure its energy supply. However, the biomass production should not create additional pressure on the environment. Therefore, for the presented calculations, biomass for energy utilization originates from the cropland of the existing agricultural areas. Permanent grassland, areas of agro-forestry and pasture have not been taken into account.

The German Offshore Transmission Grid – (Finally) A Success Story?
© Lexxion Verlagsgesellschaft mbH (4/2013)
As a result of the extensive promotion of offshore wind energy in Germany since 2006 and, in particular, since the so-called “Energiewende” by the German government in 2011, there is an increased demand to expand the German offshore transmission grid. However, the applicable statutory framework proved to be insufficient to provide the needed legal and regulatory guidance for offshore grid investments which have exceeded € 5 billion since 2010 and are expected to increase in the upcoming years. Furthermore, the increasing demand for offshore components and technology has exhausted the available market capacities. Because of these challenges, both de facto and de jure, and after long lasting discussions among the concerned parties, the German legislator implemented on 28 December 2012 a new statutory framework containing in particular a structural approach for the offshore grid development as well as a new liability regime for cases of delayed construction or disruption of offshore grid connection lines. The new statutory framework is aimed at providing potential investors and grid operators with the due level of legal certainty required for a further and effective expansion of offshore wind energy in Germany. In this regard, it should provide a sound basis for facilitating the Energiewende, but it is now up to all stakeholders involved to find a workable solution.

Efficiency and Public Acceptance of European Grid Expansion Projects: Lessons Learned across Europe
© Lexxion Verlagsgesellschaft mbH (4/2013)
The adoption of the European Union’s target to increase the share of energy from renewable sources to 20 % requires a substantial modernisation and rebuilding of the electricity grid. Current grid projects are often delayed for a variety of reasons, such as the inefficiency of permitting procedures or local opposition. In fall 2011, the European Commission proposed a regulation which aims at enhancing the necessary grid expansion. The legislation was adopted by the European Parliament and the Council in April and came into force on 15 May 2013. Among other considerations, the legislation aims at tackling the aforementioned challenges by making permitting procedures more efficient and implementing measures to increase the acceptance of new power-lines. However, questions remain about the quality and quantity of the proposed provisions designed to overcome all details of the identified problems. It will depend on the implementation of this legislation both on the European and on local level whether the new provisions will prove to be successful in terms of increased procedure efficiency and decreased public opposition. EU institutions, national governments, and competent public authorities should be aware of the area of conflict between improved procedure efficiency and increased public acceptance.

The Energiewende in Germany: Background, Developments and Future Challenges
© Lexxion Verlagsgesellschaft mbH (4/2013)
This article explores the background to the Energiewende in Germany and recent developments. Specifically, it examines the ongoing politics of this commitment to phase-out nuclear power, reduce fossil fuel use and ensure continued economic growth. Distinctions between the German Energiewende and energy transitions in other countries are drawn, the actions undertaken and the forms of governance and politics shaping them outlined. While Germany is a leader in renewable energy, and the broad societal consensus against nuclear power is uniquely German, political and societal conflicts of a more general nature are emerging. Other countries follow closely developments occuring in Germany and may learn from the German experience. The key objective of this article is thus to draw attention to the politics of the Energiewende in Germany and the key debates and difficult decisions emerging.

The New Planning Regime for the Expansion of the German Onshore Electricity Grid – a Role Model for Europe?
© Lexxion Verlagsgesellschaft mbH (4/2013)
Since Summer 2011, a new planning regime governs the expansion of the German onshore electricity grid. Its aim is to accelerate the installation and operation of electricity transmission cables in order to bring the nationally proclaimed “energy transition” forward. To this end, a complex new four-tiered planning regime has been adopted, which endows extensive responsibility for planning and implementing the development of the national electricity grid to a federal authority. To some extent, with this new regime, the German legislator implemented ahead of time a number of planning law requirements which are binding for all EU Member States on the basis of the newly adopted EU-Regulation No. 347/2013. Hence, Germany’s new planning regime for the expansion of its electricity grid could potentially provide a role model for transposing the new EU regulation, and, as such, possibly be of interest to other EU Member States’ legislators. This article presents an overview of the new German onshore planning regime along with an initial evaluation and outlines the new EU Regulation No. 347/2013, followed by a discussion as to whether the German regime could be a role model for other EU Member States currently deciding how to achieve the desired acceleration effects.

The Unequal Burden-Sharing of the German Energy Transformation
© Lexxion Verlagsgesellschaft mbH (2/2013)
Over the last fifteen years, the German government has successfully encouraged the rapid adoption of renewable energy, especially wide-spread adoption of small-scale distributed generation, through the use of a feed-in tariff and associated policies and incentives. Germany’s Energiewende and the phase-out of nuclear power will entail the adoption of ever more renewable energy. While there has been clear success in the installation of renewable energy, the costs of Germany’s promotional policies are underexplored, particularly in terms of the distributional effects. This article explores these distributional effects, including the asymmetric distribution of earnings from small-scale installations accruing to private households.

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