Fast methanification of swine manure as an example for substrates with low organic content
© Agrar- und Umweltwissenschaftliche Fakultät Rostock (6/2015)
A biogas reactor of 45 m³ was fed with pure swine manure. A straw layer worked as an anaerobic filter on top of the fluid. The manure was continuously circulated to irrigate the straw. Hydraulic retention time (HRT) of straw was 45 days. HRT of manure was reduced from 45 to 7.5 days within one year. Average concentration of volatile solids (VS) of manure only was 1.8 %. We varied VS concentration and temperature to simulate normal disturbances of operation. Gas production normalized within one day after each short heating interruption. Variations of VS concentration had no negative influence on the Operation as a whole. After two months, a zone with granular sludge in autonomous fluidization was observed just below the straw layer. This shows that the reactor is a hybrid biogas reactor containing a fixed bed on the top, and an UASB zone below.

Energy Efficiency in MBS Plants
© Wasteconsult international (5/2015)
The ZAB Nuthe Spree waste treatment facility is located in Niederlehme, about 40 km from Berlin city centre. The plant processes residual waste using mechanical-biological stabilisation technology. The treatment process aims to produce different qualities of RDF and minimise the amount of material consigned to landfill by using a combination of biological drying and mechanical treatment. The plant has an annual capacity of 135,000 tonnes.

Utilization of alternative fuels in substitute fuel, cement and coal-fired power plants in Germany
© Wasteconsult international (5/2015)
High costs for fossil fuels and climate protection cause a higher importance of coincineration of alternative fuels in cement plants and coal-fired power plants. As alternative fuels various waste based materials are used, for example used wood, waste oil or (treated) industrial, trade and municipal wastes. The use is limited especially due to plant technology and legal emission standards. These aspects have a high influence on the markets for co-incineration in coal-fired power plants and cement plants. The following article will provide an overview of the status quo of the mentioned markets and ist developments until 2020.

Removing nitrogen during the anaerobic digestion of poultry wastes using physical methods
© DGAW - Deutsche Gesellschaft für Abfallwirtschaft e.V. (3/2014)
We need to improve how Anaerobic Sequencing Batch Reactor (ASBR) operates to make it economically viable. One big problem with the degradation of chicken manure has been ammonia accumulations. We solve this problem by an integrated system that removed ammonia at short periods of time from the effluent of an ASBR.

Bioenergy in the Baltic Sea Region, Nordic Countries and EU
© Agrar- und Umweltwissenschaftliche Fakultät Rostock (6/2013)
Bioenergy gives Europe the best opportunity to reduce GHG emission and secure its energy supply. However, the biomass production should not create additional pressure on the environment. Therefore, for the presented calculations, biomass for energy utilization originates from the cropland of the existing agricultural areas. Permanent grassland, areas of agro-forestry and pasture have not been taken into account.

Biochar research and technology in Europe – state of the art
© ANS e.V. HAWK (10/2012)
Biochar systems following the terra preta phenomenon aim at long-term carbon sequestration into agroecosystems, while simultaneously improving ecosystem services such as soil fertility and crop production. In addition, the terra preta concept teaches us how to sustainably use natural resources such as biomass and soil. However, despite several patents and technology advancement, we are far away from using this concept in a sustainable way, being successful in Amazonia for at least 2,000 years. Therefore, this European Coordination project in Science and Technology (COST) connects national biochar research and technology across Europe to enable quick implementation of sustainable management of natural resources, especially to maintain or improve soil quality while efficiently sequestering carbon in the long-term.

Biochar: contaminant source or sink?
© ANS e.V. HAWK (10/2012)
Biochar is a promising organic recycling material to be used as a soil conditioner and feed supplement. However, it may contain pollutants originating from feedstock, or formed during pyrolysis. The latter origin is eminent in the case of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). Inherent inorganic contaminants in biochars are unlikely and studies on this topic are rare. Concentrations of metals are probably similar to those in other recycling fertilizers, depending on the input material. Conversely, pyrolysis of organic matter produces condensed carbonaceous structures which strongly adsorb organic pollutants such as PAHs, pesticides, polychlorinated biphenyls, etc. Biochars are also used to immobilize heavy metal pollutions in soils. Carboxylized biochars are employed to enhance ionic interactions with the pollutants to avoid leaching into (ground) waters. The raise of pore water pH in biochar amended soil in contrast mobilizes anionic contaminants such as antimony or arsenic which exhibit mostly negative speciation in such alkaline environments. All in all, biochar is probably both, a source and sink of contaminants.

Import of biomass or using local biomass to reach the renewable energy objectives?
© European Compost Network ECN e.V. (6/2012)
Biomass can be used in lots of different products, applications and industries. All European countries need biomass toreach the European goals for renewable energy. So does Belgium. In Belgium waste and energy policy is a competenceof the Regions. Belgium has three regions: Flanders, Brussels and Wallonia. More as 50 % of the renewable energy sources have to come from using solid biomass in order to reach the goal of 20% energy from renewable sources in 2020.

Greenhouse gas Monitoring for optimization of process Efficiency of Biogas plants
© European Compost Network ECN e.V. (6/2012)
Within the research project "KLIMONEFF" modern optical remote sensing (ORS) technology is applied as aninnovative approach to detect methane losses of diverse parts of biogas facilities in order to reduce their greenhouse gas(GHG) losses and optimize their energy efficiency. An Austrian biogas plant has, therefore, been selected to quantifythe GHG emissions of the entire plant but also methane losses (methane loads) from various plant components for therepresentative period of one year.

Potential of producing bio-Ethanol for use as E10 in Transportation sector from low cost lignocellulosic green waste in Mauritius
© European Compost Network ECN e.V. (6/2012)
Bio-ethanol production from biomass is attracting attention all over the world in view of its use as an alternative source topetrol or in blends with petrol for clean energy technology in the transportation sector. The commercial feasibility of bioethanolproduction from locally available renewable lignocellulosic resources depends both on its ease of availability and itslow cost. Moreover, with the intensive urge in having a clean environment for the present and future generation, theGovernment of Mauritius has adopted a strategy of Building a Green future for Mauritius through the Maurice Ile Durable(MID) concept through a shift to renewable sources of energy from imported fossil fuels.

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