Future Fuels from Residual Biomass
© Agrar- und Umweltwissenschaftliche Fakultät Rostock (6/2016)
Already at an early stage of biofuels development and production it became obvious, that a potential competition to food and feed production could occur, supported by a number a potential studies and systems analysis. Based on their results a concept was derived for the use of the vast amounts of low grade, residual biomass for use in large scale synthetic biofuels production.

Effect of various pretreatment methods on anaerobic mixed microflora to enhance MCFAs production
© DGAW - Deutsche Gesellschaft für Abfallwirtschaft e.V. (3/2014)
The objective of this investigation was to study the effect of several pretreatment methods on anaerobic mixed culture in order to convert volatile faty acids (VFAs) into medium chain fatty acids (MCFAs) using ethanol. The expected results will reveal the efficiency of MCFAs evolution and substrate removal efficiency among different pretreatment methods as acid preatreatment, chemical pretreatment (2-bromoethane sulphonic acid sodium salt 10g/l for 24 h, heat shock pretreatment at both 100 °C for 1 h and under autoclaving conditions. The results will be compared to control experiment and different mixed conditions. In addition the effect of ethnol concentration on chain elongation process will be studied.

The EU’s Biofuels: Certified as Sustainable?
© Lexxion Verlagsgesellschaft mbH (12/2012)
The focus of the article is on the practical implementation of the EU Renewable Energy Directive’s sustainability criteria. The article discusses verification of compliance through voluntary certification schemes, one of the three ways in which Member States can enforce their responsibility of requiring economic operators to show compliance with the sustainability criteria. The voluntary certification schemes are tasked with guaranteeing that all biofuels verified by said schemes are sustainable and produced under the criteria set by the Renewable Energy Directive. The European Commission has claimed that the EU certification scheme is the most stringent of its kind in the world, ensuring that EU biofuels meet the highest environmental standards. However, this article questions these claims and discusses whether the voluntary certification schemes, as the central implementation mechanism for the Renewable Energy Directive, can fully guarantee sustainable biofuels in accordance with the sustainability requirements set in that directive.

Potential of producing bio-Ethanol for use as E10 in Transportation sector from low cost lignocellulosic green waste in Mauritius
© European Compost Network ECN e.V. (6/2012)
Bio-ethanol production from biomass is attracting attention all over the world in view of its use as an alternative source topetrol or in blends with petrol for clean energy technology in the transportation sector. The commercial feasibility of bioethanolproduction from locally available renewable lignocellulosic resources depends both on its ease of availability and itslow cost. Moreover, with the intensive urge in having a clean environment for the present and future generation, theGovernment of Mauritius has adopted a strategy of Building a Green future for Mauritius through the Maurice Ile Durable(MID) concept through a shift to renewable sources of energy from imported fossil fuels.

Ethanol production using complex anaerobic inoculum: Effect of PH on the fermentation profile of Glucose and Xylose
© European Compost Network ECN e.V. (6/2012)
The regulatory and political context in France and Europe gives strong incentives for the development of transportation biofuels during the ten coming years (EU Directive 2003/30/CE). The environmental benefit of using first generation biofuels (agro-fuels) is however questionable (Kalogo et al., 2007). In this framework, the development of bioethanol from other organic resources such as household waste has been reported to be more economically and environmentally attractive. We are therefore working on the coupling of an ethanol production reactor to existing anaerobic digestion processes. Household waste being a complex and heterogeneous matrix, yeast fermentation would require energy-intensive pretreatments. Further Authors: M. Bouix, L. Mazeas, C. Madigou, C.M. RichardA. Guenne, T. Labatut

Micro-gas grids – an innovative approach for bio-methane production?
© Agrar- und Umweltwissenschaftliche Fakultät Rostock (6/2012)
Bio-methane production makes spatial and temporal decoupling of biogas production and utilization possible allowing for optimized use of energy from biogas. Nevertheless the technology is usually not applicable in regions characterized by small-scale agriculture due to heavy reliance on large inputs of energy crops. The overall objective is to investigate under which technical framework conditions the concept features of micro-gas grids can energetically optimize the bio-methane utilization pathway and how this insight can be used to speed up the integration of smallscale plants into the bio-methane market. In a first research step the Cumulative Energy Demand (CED) approach is to be applied. The parameters of the micro-gas grid model to be used in the CED have been calculated on the basis of literature data and information gained from expert interviews.

3. Other Forms of Energy, EQF 3 Premium
© AIRE (Adapting and installing an international vocational training for renewable energy) (1/2012)
Which knowledge, skills and competences does an AIRE specialist need as far as usual forms of energy are concerned?

Regional-global Linkages in the Energy-Climate-Development Policy Nexus: The Case of Biofuels in the EU Renewable Energy Directive
© Lexxion Verlagsgesellschaft mbH (9/2011)
The European Union’s Renewable Energy Directive aims to accelerate the transition to renewable energy in the Community to support the EU energy policy goals of energy security, sustainability, and competitiveness. At the same time, the Directive – especially in its biofuels components – must also recognise the need for convergence between global and regional policy objectives. Such convergence is seen as necessary in order to align regional energy-economic objectives with global environment and development policies in general and climate policy in particular. In this article, the biofuels components of the Directive are evaluated – particularly the sustainability criteria – in terms of their relation to the EU energy strategy and the resulting effects on energy, climate, and development policy objectives. It is found that the design and implementation of the sustainability criteria weaken the effect of the Directive’s potential impacts on global energy markets and international development objectives, while somewhat strengthening the internal EU market and technology objectives.

The Environmental Regulation of Biofuels: Limits of the Meta-Standard Approach
© Lexxion Verlagsgesellschaft mbH (5/2011)
The promotion of biofuels as a fossil fuel alternative has been a significant aspect of the global quest for solutions to mitigate climate change. However, the quick-fix has proven to be problematic as food security and environmental concerns emerge.

Mechanisms for Driving Sustainability of Biofuels in Developing Countries
© Lexxion Verlagsgesellschaft mbH (10/2010)
The mandatory biofuel blending targets of the European Union (EU) have been influential in the establishment of a global biofuels market, as they are likely to be achieved through importation from areas with high potential for biofuel expansion, predominately parts of Africa, Latin America and Asia. Prospects of economic and rural development, fuel self-sufficiency and improved balance of trade, rather than climate change mitigation, typically attract these countries to biofuel production, despite the potential for extensive socio-economic and environmental impacts.

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