Energetic Utilization of Organic Waste and Residuals in Germany
© Lehrstuhl für Abfallverwertungstechnik und Abfallwirtschaft der Montanuniversität Leoben (11/2014)
Biomass is currently the most important renewable energy source in Germany. Approximately two-thirds of the available residue potential in Germany is already used energetically, the thermal recovery with the use of waste wood predominates (Nelles et al. 2013). The energy potential of relevant organic waste and residuals such as waste wood (8%), straw (7%), manure (6%), industrial waste wood (4%) as well as bio- and green waste (1%) is estimated by the Agency for Renewable Energy up to 383 PJ/a in 2020 (AEE 2013).

Residues from the Paper Industry: Untapped Biomass?
© Lehrstuhl für Abfallverwertungstechnik und Abfallwirtschaft der Montanuniversität Leoben (11/2014)
Biomass is at the focus of political and industrial endeavours designed to curtail the use of pe-troleum, natural gas and coal as well as to confi ne the pollution of the atmosphere with fossil CO2.

Import of biomass or using local biomass to reach the renewable energy objectives?
© European Compost Network ECN e.V. (6/2012)
Biomass can be used in lots of different products, applications and industries. All European countries need biomass toreach the European goals for renewable energy. So does Belgium. In Belgium waste and energy policy is a competenceof the Regions. Belgium has three regions: Flanders, Brussels and Wallonia. More as 50 % of the renewable energy sources have to come from using solid biomass in order to reach the goal of 20% energy from renewable sources in 2020.

The swedish voluntary Agreement for control of methane emissions from Biogas plants
© European Compost Network ECN e.V. (6/2012)
Swedish Waste Management Association has set up a voluntary agreement for control of methane emissions frombiogas and upgrading plants, starting in the year 2007. There were a number of reasons to start this system, mainlyenvironmental (GHG emissions and odour), economical and safety issues, but as important was to show that the biogasindustry acts responsibly and is pro-active regarding these issues, especially in relation to authorities. The voluntaryagreement system has been reviewed once and is currently set up in two parts; internal routines for leak detection andemission measurements performed every 3 years by an external consultant. Further Authors: H. Hellström - SP Technical Research Institute of Sweden A. Blom - Swedish Waste Management Association

Valoristaion of biomass waste streams in local energy conversion parks
© European Compost Network ECN e.V. (6/2012)
Biomass is considered as one of the main alternatives for the use of fossil fuels. Current production of bioenergy is strongly driven by policy support and subsidies. Focus mostly lays on the use of clean biomass streams like wood or food crops, often imported from the other side of the world. Energy production plants are specifically dedicated to one specific biomass product with one conversion technology and with one specific output (electricity, or heat, or biofuel). Further Authors: N. Devriendt, R. Guisson, H. Pieper, N. Marquez-Luzardo, J. Venselaar, M. Van Dael, S. Van Passel, P. Vollaard, P. Reumerman, K. Coppoolse

Optimization of batch bio-H2 and methane production from raw cheese whey
© European Compost Network ECN e.V. (6/2012)
Due to the renewed interest of finding new sources of green energy, biologically produced hydrogen (bio-H2) from biomass and mixed cultures is a promising alternative. Under anaerobic conditions, a wide range of food wastes can be used as substrates to generate bio-H2.

Catalytic pyrolysis of biomass for oxygen removal from bio-oil
© European Compost Network ECN e.V. (6/2012)
The pyrolysis of biomass is a thermal process that converts, at high yield, solid biomass into a liquid product known as bio-oil by using a silica inert material to transfer heat and volatilize the biomass particles. One alternative for the production of a bio-oil of better quality and with lower oxygen content is the use of catalysts in the pyrolysis reactor, rather than an inert, a process called catalytic pyrolysis. The objective of this study was to investigate the effects on product yields and the qualities of products of two different catalysts, one acidic, a commercial fluid catalytic cracking (FCC) catalyst, and a basic one containing hydrotalcite.

Can two-stage anaerobic digestion improve energy recovery from biomass?
© European Compost Network ECN e.V. (6/2012)
Biogas production from agriculture, farming and food-industry residues and waste is getting more and more important in the field of renewable energy sources. The two-stage anaerobic digestion (AD) allows producing both biohydrogen and biomethane (Wang et al., 2003) and shows to have other advantages compared to the AD process (one-stage). For example, it promises to be a possibile solution to increase the overall energy recovery from biomass, as shown in studies carried out on carbohidrate-rich substrates (Kreamer & Bagley, 2005). Further Author: S. Lonati - Università degli Studi di Milano

External influences on the energy efficiency of composting plants
© European Compost Network ECN e.V. (6/2012)
With regard to energy efficiency as a major tool to reduce the use of fossil energies and to enable the conversion to a sustainable energy system, also biological waste treatment technologies have to improve their specific energy efficiency i.e. the energy used for a specific amount of biological waste utilised. To increase the energy efficiency of composting plants two general approaches seem to be viable.

TRESERT – Sustainable concept of decentralized clean energy supply in South East Asia
© Editorial OMNIMEDIA S.L. (5/2012)
The project demonstrates how a decentralized supply of electrical energy, heat and refrigeration can be created from solar thermal energy and biomass.

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