Solid Recovered Fuel – Optimization of Plants in the Polish Economic Reality
© Lehrstuhl für Abfallverwertungstechnik und Abfallwirtschaft der Montanuniversität Leoben (11/2016)
Waste management and district heating systems, especially in scope of smaller facilities, require a thorough modernization. In addition, the existing model of these systems, especially for small and medium-territorial units, is not able to meet new requirements of the EU policy in the field of resources and energy efficiency. It is therefore necessary to seek for the new model which quality will be closer to the requirements of the overall strategy of the European Commission, whose key elements includes the impact of the project on the social prosperity and the preservation of the principles of sustainable development.

Manufacturing of Solid Recovered Fuels (SRF) for Energy Recovery Processes
© TK Verlag - Fachverlag für Kreislaufwirtschaft (9/2016)
This contribution describes manufacturing processes and quality of three types of Solid Recovered Fuels – i.e. SRF low quality, SRF medium quality and SRF premium quality – that are used in energy recovery plants. In total, two case studies are reported. First case study is about the external processing and confectioning of non-hazardous household, industrial and commercial mixed wastes as well as the internal treatment and homogenisation of various waste fractions at the incineration plant for production of SRF low quality that is utilized in a Waste to Energy (WtE) stationary Fluidized Bed Incinerator. In the second case study, production of SRF medium quality and SRF premium quality that are used for substitution of primary fuels like coal and petrol coke in the cement kiln is described. Finally, data on SRF quality of all three investigated waste types will be summarized and discussed.

Complex Approach towards the Assessment of Waste-to-Energy Plants’ Future Potential
© TK Verlag - Fachverlag für Kreislaufwirtschaft (9/2016)
There is a fierce debate ongoing about future recycling targets for municipal solid waste (MSW) at the European level. The old linear concept of waste management is being changed into a circular economy. Since the separation yield and post-recycling MSW (later on residual solid waste, RSW) production have an opposite relationship, assuming the constant production of particular components (paper, plastics etc.), lower RSW rates are also expected. This is having a negative effect on Waste-to-energy (WtE); especially in terms of its future optimum capacity in particular countries.

Mechanical-Biological Treatment Plant in Hanover, Germany – Experience in Mechanical Processing, Anaerobic Digestion and Refuse Derived Fuel Quality –
© TK Verlag - Fachverlag für Kreislaufwirtschaft (12/2015)
The Hanover mechanical-biological treatment (MBT) plant can look back on 15 years of operator´s experience. The mechanical treatment facility has been working largely without any issues due to the simple technique and the comfortable redundancy and design. The biological treatment facility faces growing damage due to ageing of materials, which is accelerated by microbiological attack, and corrosive and abrasive ingredients in the residual waste. Comprehensive maintenance, renovation and replacement measures are planned.

Production of Solid Recovered Fuels (SRF) in the ThermoTeam Plant in Retznei, Austria – Experience, Quality and Quality Assurance of SRF –
© TK Verlag - Fachverlag für Kreislaufwirtschaft (12/2015)
In present chapter, the Austrian waste management system, including position and role of the alternative fuel production plant ThermoTeam as well as legal requirements on SRF quality together with quality assurance measures are described.

Cost Optimization through Use of Flexible Grate Systems in Combination with Modern Boiler Concepts
© TK Verlag - Fachverlag für Kreislaufwirtschaft (12/2015)
Old method, new approach: for customer-oriented solutions. The demands on innovative grate technologies mean to explore the full potential of available technology and to push the technical boundaries further.

Concepts for Processing Solid Recovered Fuels of Different Waste Origins for Waste-to-Energy Plants
© TK Verlag - Fachverlag für Kreislaufwirtschaft (11/2014)
Waste-to-energy plants represent a major building block in a coordinated waste management system. To make the best use of the energy content in waste, the alternative fuels recovered are used in the most varied plants. The applications range from the main burner in a cement plant to the traditional grate combustion plant. In line with this, the preparation processes are also very heavily dependent on the requirements – parameters – of the relevant fuel, taking into account its area of application.

Waste-to-Energy Plant as Part of Combined Heat and Power Strategy – Using the Example of the Klaipeda Case –
© TK Verlag - Fachverlag für Kreislaufwirtschaft (11/2014)
According to current plans EU will in future strongly promote the circular economy. Aim is to use resources more efficiently with ambitious target to increase resource productivity by thirty percent by 2030. This means less waste sent to landfills and new requirements for more sustainable waste treatment.

Refuse Derived Fuel Gasification Technologies for High Efficient Energy Production
© TK Verlag - Fachverlag für Kreislaufwirtschaft (11/2014)
There is an increasing demand for replacing primary resources in manufacturing and fossil fuels in energy production with competitive and renewable alternatives. At the same time, many countries still landfill the majority of their municipal solid waste, causing significant environmental challenges and wasting a valuable resource. Waste is not only a problem to get rid of, but a source of valuable raw materials and competitive alternative to fossil fuels. By adopting an integrated solution for waste management and energy production, a municipality can reduce the environmental impact of waste and increase its revenues from recycling and energy sales. An integrated approach starts with efficient sorting of waste to separate recyclates and wet biowaste. Residual waste is pretreated in a recycling facility to recover remaining recyclates and produce a refuse derived fuel (RDF) for efficient energy recovery. Also energy intensive industries are looking at using RDF to replace fossil fuels.

Use of Solid Recovered Fuels in the Cement Industry
© TK Verlag - Fachverlag für Kreislaufwirtschaft (11/2014)
The European Union Directive 2000/76/EC on the Incineration of Waste limits emissions to air, only, however, so far there are still no limits considering the levels of pollutants in the fuels, residues or products themselves when waste fuels are burnt in co-incineration plants. To overcome this shortage, the Guideline for Waste Fuels and the Waste Incineration Directive, which define quality criteria for waste fuels burnt in co-incineration plants, have been issued in Austria. According to this legal framework, waste fuels are waste that is used entirely or to a relevant extent for the purpose of energy generation and which satisfies the quality criteria laid down in the Waste Incineration Directive.

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