Greenhouse gases from composting and anaerobic digestion of biowaste in Germany
© European Compost Network ECN e.V. (6/2014)
Greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions from 12 to 120 kg CO2äq/Mg from composting and anaerobic digestion of biowaste are important for environmental impacts and results in Life Cycle Assessment (LCA). Poor operation can cause even higher emissions up to 400 kg CO2äq/Mg. The amount of CH4 and primary N2O differ in a range of factor 10 between different plants and is a result of variation in substrate (feedstock) and basic process parameters like: porosity, density, temperature, moisture, C:N ratio, O2 and pH-value.

A Green Emerging Market: India’s Experiments with Market Based Mechanisms for Climate Mitigation
© Lexxion Verlagsgesellschaft mbH (12/2012)
India is the fourth largest emitter of greenhouse gases in the world. After Copenhagen in 2009, India announced that it will be working to reduce voluntarily the carbon intensity of its emissions by 20–25 % against 2005 levels by the year 2020, while maintaining a growth rate of 8 %. In 2011–2012, it introduced a number of innovative initiatives to help reach that goal. This paper will discuss three of these measures. Two of these schemes are market based initiatives in the field of energy: the first is called “Perform, Achieve and Trade” and is aimed at improved energy efficiency; the second scheme promotes increased use of renewable sources of energy through trade in renewable energy certificates. The third scheme is a pilot market based emissions trading mechanism that seeks to reduce the levels of particulate matter emissions in three leading industrial states in India.

Composting and Fermentation of Biowaste – Contribution to reduce Greenhouse Gases –
© TK Verlag - Fachverlag für Kreislaufwirtschaft (10/2012)
Gewitra company carried out R&D project of the German federal environmental agency (UBA) on determining gaseous emissions from different types of large scale Treatment plants for bio waste in Germany: open windrow, in-vessel systems and composting plants with integrated anaerobic digestion step. Measurement data of emission control are VOC (FID), CH4, NH3 and N2O; emission factors and CO2-Equivalents (CH4 factor GWP 25, N2O factor GWP 298) will be calculated as well.

After Durban, what Legal Form for the Future International Climate Regime?
© Lexxion Verlagsgesellschaft mbH (9/2012)
The first commitment period of the Kyoto Protocol is due to expire at the end of 2012, but no commitments have been adopted to date for a second period. Discussions about the fate of the climate regime beyond 2012 were supposed to end in 2009, in order to avoid a gap between the first and second commitment periods. But neither the Copenhagen climate summit (2009), nor the Cancun conference (2010) resulted in conclusion of a deal. They did not yield answer about the divisive issues of legal form and architecture of the future international climate regime. The Durban Conference (2011) no longer was able to avoid addressing these thorny issues. At the very end of the summit, a compromise was reached following long and difficult negotiations. Parties decided to extend the Kyoto Protocol through a second commitment period and launch a new round of negotiations under the Convention in order to adopt a more inclusive and ambitious international climate regime to be implemented from 2020.

Public Subsidies for CCS and EU State Aid Law: The Decisional Practice of the European Commission
© Lexxion Verlagsgesellschaft mbH (9/2012)
Technologies for the capture, transport and storage of CO2 (CCS) are under examination as promising tools to cut greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. Given its high cost, however, CCS deployment has failed to gain momentum, and financial support from public authorities is potentially needed before the private sector can fully engage in this abatement technology. Under European Union (EU) law, such public support may constitute State aid and thus be subject to the stringent EU regime on State aid. This article examines the European Commission’s approach to assessing the compatibility of publicly-funded support for CCS projects with EU State aid law, looking at the limited case law available in this area as well as at the general legal framework used by the Commission when assessing aid for CCS projects.

Portability of waste management concepts and technologies
© Arbeitsgemeinschaft Stoffspezifische Abfallbehandlung ASA e.V. (9/2012)
The Federal Ministry of the Environment, Nature Conservation and Nuclear Safety finances the International Climate Initiative (IKI) by means of carbon trade revenues. IKI supports worldwide projects for climate mitigation, adaptation to climate change, and for the conservation to climate-relevant biodiversity. Since 2006 AWN Umwelt GmbH (Buchen) initiates in Gaobeidian (South of Bejing) the establishment of a mechanical biological treatment plant (MBT) aiming on the reduction of methane emissions from decay of organic waste components at landfills. The greenhouse effect of methane, which is generated at landfills, is 20times higher than the effect of CO2. Due to biological treatment, organic components are being stabilized, what reduces decay after final disposal significantly. In summer 2009 the implementation of the project started. The facility opened for operation in September 2011. In early 2012 full operation will be accomplished. The MBT-plant consists of a biological treatment with active aeration processing 40.000 t of residual waste per year. In the mechanical step 4000 t of recyclables will be segregated. The MBT-output will be utilized as a methane oxidation layer covering old landfill sites. The facility also features a model plant for anaerobic digestion. TU Braunschweig provides scientific assistance during the start up operation. The project developer AWN Umwelt operates the facility during the first year of operation prior to transferring to the local government of Gaobeidian. The virtually certifiable emission reduction is expected to 500.000 tCO2eq for a monitoring period of 20 years.

Europe’s Air Becomes More and More Expensive: The Integration of Maritime Transport into the European Emission Trading Scheme
© Lexxion Verlagsgesellschaft mbH (8/2012)
Europas Geduld mit der internationalen Seeschifffahrtsorganisation neigt sich dem Ende zu: Da bisher auf internationaler Ebene eine Einigung auf eine verbindliche Reduktion der Treibhausgasemissionen des Schifffahrtssektors nicht in Sicht ist, plant die Europäische Union die Einführung eigener Maßnahmen. Die wahrscheinliche Option ist der Einbezug in das europäische Emissionshandelssystem, so wie es bereits für den Flugverkehr seit Januar 2012 der Fall ist. Dies würde die internationale Seeschifffahrt vor finanzielle, technische, und administrative Herausforderungen stellen – nicht nur in Europa. Ein solches Handelssystem wirft darüber hinaus, je nach Anwendungsbereich und Ausgestaltung, rechtliche Fragen im Hinblick auf seine Vereinbarkeit mit Völkerrecht auf, insbesondere bezüglich Vorschriften des Seerechts, des internationalen Handelsrechts und der Legalität extraterritorialer Maßnahmen.

The swedish voluntary Agreement for control of methane emissions from Biogas plants
© European Compost Network ECN e.V. (6/2012)
Swedish Waste Management Association has set up a voluntary agreement for control of methane emissions frombiogas and upgrading plants, starting in the year 2007. There were a number of reasons to start this system, mainlyenvironmental (GHG emissions and odour), economical and safety issues, but as important was to show that the biogasindustry acts responsibly and is pro-active regarding these issues, especially in relation to authorities. The voluntaryagreement system has been reviewed once and is currently set up in two parts; internal routines for leak detection andemission measurements performed every 3 years by an external consultant. Further Authors: H. Hellström - SP Technical Research Institute of Sweden A. Blom - Swedish Waste Management Association

How Construction Standards Can Reduce Carbon Emissions: An African Case Study
© Lexxion Verlagsgesellschaft mbH (12/2010)
Building techniques typically employ cement, a material with high embedded carbon. Rammed Earth, a traditional building material, has a far lower carbon impact. In the search for sustainable development across the developed and developing world, building techniques have an important role to play.

Legal Uncertainties of Carbon Capture and Storage in the EU: The Netherlands as an Example
© Lexxion Verlagsgesellschaft mbH (10/2010)
The new EU Directive for the geological storage of CO2 aims at providing a legal framework for the development of CCS. However, the Directive does not remove all legal barriers and uncertainties. Capture, transport and storage of CO2 are covered by a large number of international, European and national regulations, resulting in various legal unknowns. These obstacles and uncertainties need to be removed in order to provide companies with a proper incentive to invest in CCS.

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