Use of Cuttings as Filler in Polymers
© Lehrstuhl für Abfallverwertungstechnik und Abfallwirtschaft der Montanuniversität Leoben (11/2014)
To meet the ever increasing demand for oil and gas, the exploration of deposits at greater depths is essential. This in turn poses new challenges to the modern drilling technology, especially with regard to the use of drilling fluids. In order to bring down the sometimes more than ten Kilometers long and highly deviated or even horizontal wells, hook loads of several hundred tons, high torques and temperatures higher than 200 °C must be controlled without damaging the sensitive deposits.

Carbon Leakage, Free Allocation and Linking Emissions Trading Schemes
© Lexxion Verlagsgesellschaft mbH (6/2014)
A sub-global emissions trading scheme (ETS) risks harming competitiveness and causing carbon leakage. These concerns cast doubt on the efficiency and environmental effectiveness of unilateral climate policies. ETSs implemented thus far include measures to address competitiveness and leakage concerns.

Emissions Trading in the US: Work in Progress on the Federal Level?
© Lexxion Verlagsgesellschaft mbH (9/2013)
Emission trading has been used as a policy instrument for certain non-greenhouse gases in the United States on the federal administrative level for years. Yet, discussions on the use of market based instruments to regulate greenhouse gas emissions on the federal level have not resulted in national policies. Following new commitments in a Climate Action Plan (CAP), the Obama Administration and the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) could be about to put a differentiated regulatory framework in place.

Making Sense of Carbon Market Development in China
© Lexxion Verlagsgesellschaft mbH (9/2013)
China has recently begun promoting market-oriented policy instruments to reduce carbon emissions as part of its domestic climate strategy. A centerpiece of this new policy approach has been the launch of pilot carbon markets in seven distinct regions. Based on extensive field visits to all pilot markets under development, this analysis assesses the implications of this “bottom-up” approach to carbon market development for the prospects for nationwide carbon trading in China. It concludes that initiating carbon trading in the seven regions across China with insufficient capacity building, an extremely compressed time frame, and little bureaucratic coordination has engendered challenges for the development of a national carbon market. Nevertheless, these pilots have advanced the prospects for sustained climate action in China at the local Level through their contribution to indigenous technical and human capacity as well as through engaging new stakeholders, including domestic and international actors, supportive of the development of an eventual national trading scheme.

Beyond Déjà Vu: Opportunities for Policyv Learning from Emissions Trading in Developed Countries
© Lexxion Verlagsgesellschaft mbH (12/2012)
Under pressure to abate greenhouse gas emissions without burdening their economies, several countries around the world have introduced emissions trading systems as a centerpiece of their climate change mitigation strategies. Drawing on the experiences with emissions trading made in Europe, North America, and the Asia-Pacific region, this article shows that considerable diversity can be observed across systems, providing valuable opportunities for comparison and policy learning. Individually, and in comparison, existing trading systems offer lessons that can be applied to the design and implementation of new systems – especially in emerging economies where carbon markets are currently under development, such as China – and to the improvement of already operating systems. Such lessons are identified in three different categories: the role of the political process and economic context; system design; and system implementation and operation.

To Tax or Trade (or Both or Neither)? - The Confusing South African Status Quo on Carbon Taxation and Emissions Trading
© Lexxion Verlagsgesellschaft mbH (12/2012)
South Africa has a rapidly evolving climate change policy environment, which is in keeping with the country’s view of itself as a developing country leader in the climate change arena. Part of the policy environment includes attention to financial mechanisms that can be marshaled in support of the response to climate change. Flowing from the notion of using financial mechanisms in this manner, the South African National Treasury has taken initial steps towards the implementation of carbon taxation over emissions trading. While Treasury’s progress towards carbon taxation is in keeping with its primary role in financial matters, a dichotomy exists between Treasury’s view on how revenue raised from carbon taxation should be applied and the view of the Department of Environmental Affairs (which is the custodian of the national climate change policy). This article explores these and related issues with the purpose of giving a flavour and the status quo of the debate around carbon taxation and emissions trading in South Africa.

Phishing of European Emission Allowances and Resulting Legal Implications
© Lexxion Verlagsgesellschaft mbH (9/2012)
In 2010/2011, the European Emission Trading System found itself subject to so-called phishing attacks during which millions of European greenhouse gas emission allowances were fraudulently obtained and subsequently resold. Since this scam, trading of affected emission allowances carries with it some legal uncertainty.

Tax Accounting for Transactions under an Emissions Trading Scheme: An Australasian Perspective
© Lexxion Verlagsgesellschaft mbH (5/2011)
While the taxation treatment of transactions under an emissions trading scheme (ETS) has the potential to support or distort the primary object of the ETS, taxation considerations are often overlooked in the process of designing a scheme.

Subsidizing Carbon Capture and Storage Demonstration through the EU ETS New Entrants Reserve: A Proportionality Test
© Lexxion Verlagsgesellschaft mbH (10/2010)
Upon its adoption in the Directive revising the European Greenhouse Gas Emission Trading Scheme (Directive 2009/29), Article 10(a)8 was heavily criticized by a number of environmental organizations and legal scholars for disturbing the EU ETS’ market mechanism.

Litigating the NAP: Legal Challenges for the Emissions Trading Scheme of the European Union
© Lexxion Verlagsgesellschaft mbH (10/2010)
There has been a sharp increase in the amount of litigation regarding the European Union Emissions Trading Scheme in recent years. Cases revolve mainly around the limits of the Commission’s discretion in reviewing National Allocation Plans (NAPs).

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