Mapping and influencing global perceptions of waste to energy
© WtERT Germany GmbH (5/2015)
When it comes to waste to energy, countries around the world have vastly different attitudes towards its place in dealing with the global waste situation and, as a result, often widely-contrasting levels of success.

Making Sense of Carbon Market Development in China
© Lexxion Verlagsgesellschaft mbH (9/2013)
China has recently begun promoting market-oriented policy instruments to reduce carbon emissions as part of its domestic climate strategy. A centerpiece of this new policy approach has been the launch of pilot carbon markets in seven distinct regions. Based on extensive field visits to all pilot markets under development, this analysis assesses the implications of this “bottom-up” approach to carbon market development for the prospects for nationwide carbon trading in China. It concludes that initiating carbon trading in the seven regions across China with insufficient capacity building, an extremely compressed time frame, and little bureaucratic coordination has engendered challenges for the development of a national carbon market. Nevertheless, these pilots have advanced the prospects for sustained climate action in China at the local Level through their contribution to indigenous technical and human capacity as well as through engaging new stakeholders, including domestic and international actors, supportive of the development of an eventual national trading scheme.

After Durban, what Legal Form for the Future International Climate Regime?
© Lexxion Verlagsgesellschaft mbH (9/2012)
The first commitment period of the Kyoto Protocol is due to expire at the end of 2012, but no commitments have been adopted to date for a second period. Discussions about the fate of the climate regime beyond 2012 were supposed to end in 2009, in order to avoid a gap between the first and second commitment periods. But neither the Copenhagen climate summit (2009), nor the Cancun conference (2010) resulted in conclusion of a deal. They did not yield answer about the divisive issues of legal form and architecture of the future international climate regime. The Durban Conference (2011) no longer was able to avoid addressing these thorny issues. At the very end of the summit, a compromise was reached following long and difficult negotiations. Parties decided to extend the Kyoto Protocol through a second commitment period and launch a new round of negotiations under the Convention in order to adopt a more inclusive and ambitious international climate regime to be implemented from 2020.

The civilation biorefinery - inventories for efficient utilization of local waste and waste water based bioressources for material and energy generation
© European Compost Network ECN e.V. (6/2012)
Since fossil resources are limited, more and more focus is laid on the utilisation of organics for energygeneration. But these bioresources are also valuable for food, feed and material production. Biorefineries are complexand integrated systems of processes and facilities with the purpose to transform primary bioresources into a multitude ofenergetic and material products. They are expected to be the step forward into a bio-based economy. Civilisationbiorefineries expand this goal by the efficient utilization of local resources which are generated as secondary or tertiarybioresources in form of waste, waste water or residues e.g. of landscape care.

Natural Gas Pipelines for Biomethane Distribution
© Agrar- und Umweltwissenschaftliche Fakultät Universität Rostock (11/2011)
The structure of the gas sector in Poland is monopolized by the Capital Group of the Polish Oil and Gas company. The company’s main areas of activity are: exploration, exploitation of natural gas and crude oil, as well as import, storage, marketing and distribution of gas and liquid fuels. Natural gas comes from two sources – imports (68 %) and domestic production (32 %). Natural gas is imported mainly from Russia. Small amounts are also imported from Turkmenistan, Uzbekistan, Germany, Ukraine and the Czech Republic.

Potential of biomethan production in Baltic Sea Region
© Agrar- und Umweltwissenschaftliche Fakultät Universität Rostock (11/2011)
In this paper the conditions of biogas production in the Baltic Sea Region countries of Poland, Sweden and Finland will be discussed. Perspectives on the growth of the biogas sector in all these countries will also be presented. Furthermore, the paper will consider biogas supplying possibilities for urban transport buses. The article is based on the information gained from the international project “Biogas Baltic Bus” and the resulting report entitled SUMMARY ELABORATION ON THE PRODUCTION AND POTENTIAL PRODUCTION OF BIOGAS IN THE BALTIC SEA BASIN COUNTRIES TODAY AND IN THE PERSPECTIVE OF THE NEXT YEAR .

Governing London and Sustainability: Power and Contestation in a World City
© Lexxion Verlagsgesellschaft mbH (5/2011)
This paper offers a critical examination of London’s governmental and planning structures and its commitments to creating a sustainable city. Governing a world city like London has always been a difficult process. Legislative commitments to address London’s sustainable future have sometimes been undermined by different policy interpretations by different key players over different time periods.

Health in Global Climate Change Law: The Long Road to an Effective Legal Regime Protecting both Public Health and the Climate
© Lexxion Verlagsgesellschaft mbH (12/2010)
As this article argues, human health – despite facing a serious threat from climate change – remains an ambivalent notion in the substantive, procedural, and institutional aspects as well as the implementation of both the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change and the Kyoto Protocol.

Biomass Wastes-to-Energy in China – Biogas from Landfills or Anaerobic Digestion Plants?
© Lehrstuhl für Abfallverwertungstechnik und Abfallwirtschaft der Montanuniversität Leoben (11/2010)
The National Development and Reform Commission (NDRC) in China has acknowledged that till 2050 up to one third of three billion tons of coal per year could be replaced by biomass energy in China. Renewable Energy from biomass waste is one of the pillars in China’s long term power supply strategy, targeting 15% renewable energy generation or about 600 GW in 2020. Landfill gas, including biogas from waste water treatment plants and from agriculture biogas plants are seen as the main sources (NDRC 2007).

The Role of Renewable Energy in German Climate Change Policy
© Lexxion Verlagsgesellschaft mbH (10/2010)
Germany has been a leader in regional and international efforts to address climate change. Renewable energy has assumed a central role in national efforts to reduce greenhouse gas emissions. This article analyzes the various policy instruments that have helped Germany become the world’s largest producer of renewable energy, most importantly the Electricity Feed-In Act and Renewable Energy Sources Act.

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