High-Efficiency Waste-to-Energy: Concepts and Operational Experience in Amsterdam
© Lehrstuhl für Abfallverwertungstechnik und Abfallwirtschaft der Montanuniversität Leoben (11/2012)
Emission reduction has been the prime focus in the Waste-to-Energy (WtE) industry, in past decades. Maximum allowable emission limits have been reduced drastically. At present the standards for WtE emissions are lower than for almost all other industries. This fostered the de-velopment of new and improved technologies in the gas cleaning system. Cost Benefit Analysis of WtE operations however show that by improving energy efficiency, there is more to gain in a further reduction of the environmental impact, (Dijkgraff & Vollebergh 2003), (Ragossnig et al. 2008). Increased steam parameters and other process innovations, have been employed in sever-al new installations to raise net electric efficiencies from an industry average for new plants of 20 – 24 % to up to 30 %.
The civilation biorefinery - inventories for efficient utilization of local waste and waste water based bioressources for material and energy generation
© European Compost Network ECN e.V. (6/2012)
Since fossil resources are limited, more and more focus is laid on the utilisation of organics for energygeneration. But these bioresources are also valuable for food, feed and material production. Biorefineries are complexand integrated systems of processes and facilities with the purpose to transform primary bioresources into a multitude ofenergetic and material products. They are expected to be the step forward into a bio-based economy. Civilisationbiorefineries expand this goal by the efficient utilization of local resources which are generated as secondary or tertiarybioresources in form of waste, waste water or residues e.g. of landscape care.
Potential of biomethan production in Baltic Sea Region
© Agrar- und Umweltwissenschaftliche Fakultät Rostock (11/2011)
In this paper the conditions of biogas production in the Baltic Sea Region countries of Poland, Sweden and Finland will be discussed. Perspectives on the growth of the biogas sector in all these countries will also be presented. Furthermore, the paper will consider biogas supplying possibilities for urban transport buses. The article is based on the information gained from the international project “Biogas Baltic Bus” and the resulting report entitled SUMMARY ELABORATION ON THE PRODUCTION AND POTENTIAL PRODUCTION OF BIOGAS IN THE BALTIC SEA BASIN COUNTRIES TODAY AND IN THE PERSPECTIVE OF THE NEXT YEAR .
Gas Flaring in Developing Countries – Need for Kyoto Mechanisms or Sectoral Crediting Mechanisms
© Lexxion Verlagsgesellschaft mbH (4/2010)
Gas flaring is a phenomenon that is wasteful in terms of valuable resources as well as a contributor to global GHG emissions, and occurs mostly in developing countries. It can only be mitigated through long-term and strategic investments, involving a myriad of stakeholders. A crediting mechanism could be seen as a starting point to create incentives for both private and public parties to build infrastructure enabling the utilisation of the associated gas. In this paper, the Clean Development Mechanism is examined to determine its adequacy in this regard. As the CDM provides limited means due to its single-project nature, this paper further explores Sectoral Crediting Mechanisms, which reflect a more sustainable approach.
Impact assessment of greenhouse gas trading on electricity production industry
© Aristotle University of Thessaloniki (6/2009)
Electricity markets constitute an important and rapidly developing research field in the area of energy economics. Deregulation and other organizational advances in international level have boosted electricity markets allowing customers to choose their provider and new producers to compete Public Power Companies. Within the frame of electricity market deregulation, energy related enterprises ought to be one step ahead of competition. Furthermore, emerging electricity generation technologies as well as technologies based on renewable energy sources progressively become attractive investment alternatives.