Plastics Recycling and Energy Recovery Activities in Poland – Current Status and Development Prospects –
© TK Verlag - Fachverlag für Kreislaufwirtschaft (9/2016)
The waste disposal system in Poland is one of the least advanced in Europe. Despite great efforts over the last 20 years municipal waste landfilling has only reduced from 95 percent in 1991 to 73 percent in 2010. This still means that millions of tonnes of post-consumer waste continue to be landfilled.

Fully Automated Sorting Plant for Municipal Solid Waste in Oslo with Recovery of Metals, Plastics, Paper and Refuse Derived Fuel
© TK Verlag - Fachverlag für Kreislaufwirtschaft (9/2016)
In order to treat household waste Romerike Avfallsforedling (ROAF) located in Skedsmorkorset north of Oslo, Norway required the installation of a mechanical Treatment facility to process 40,000 tpa. Together with a Norwegian based technical consultancy Mepex and German based technical consultancy EUG the project was tendered and the plant build against a technical specification. In 2013 the project was awarded to Stadler Anlagenbau and since April 2014 the plant is in operation with an hourly throughput of thirty tons. The input waste contains specific green coloured bags containing food waste which is collected together with the residual waste from the households. The process recovers successfully the green food bags before the remaining waste is mechanically pre-treated and screened to isolate a polymer rich fraction which is then fully segregated via NIR technology in to target polymers prior to fully automated product baling. Recoverable Fibre is optically targeted as well as ferrous and non-ferrous metals. All food waste is transported off site for further biological treatment and the remaining residual waste leaves site for thermal recovery. In 2015 the plant has been successfully upgraded to forty tons per hour and remains fully automated including material baling.

Heavy Metals Flows Induced by Plastics Utilisation in the Blast Furnace Process
© Lehrstuhl für Abfallverwertungstechnik und Abfallwirtschaft der Montanuniversität Leoben (11/2014)
Waste plastics can be utilised as an alternative reducing agent in the blast furnace process. There they are substituting for reducing agents such as coke, crude tar or heavy crude oil, for example. However, the utilisation of waste plastics as an alternative reducing agent is also associated with an additional input of heavy metals in the process. These heavy metals are not only relevant for the process stability and the product quality but also from an environmental Point of view. To which extent gaseous emissions or waste water from furnace gas cleaning may be influenced by feedstock recycling of waste plastics has been hardly investigated so far.

Pilot beverage cartons
© Eigenbeiträge der Autoren (12/2013)
This report gives a technological description of the four common collection and recycling schemes that have been tested in the Netherlands as part of the pilot beverage cartons in 2013. During this pilot the collection and recycling of beverage cartons was tested in 37 different municipalities, with various separate collection systems and 2 recovery facilities.

Fields of Research in Optical Sorting of Different Types of Waste
© TK Verlag - Fachverlag für Kreislaufwirtschaft (10/2012)
Optical sorting appeared for the first time in 1994 in Germany, France and in the USA. Initially, it was limited to the recognition of the main packaging types, as found in the "yellow bin", using the NIR spectroscopy to differentiate molecular bonds: PET, HDPE, PVC, Tetrapak were the main targets. Colour sorting was later introduced for very fine colour nuances (e.g. clear vs light blue bottles). Today, most MRFs in Europe use Optical Sorting for packaging.

8. Technical English, EQF 5 Premium
© AIRE (Adapting and installing an international vocational training for renewable energy) (2/2012)
Which knowledge, skills and competences does an AIRE specialist need? Which level of the European Framework of Languages is the minimum standard for this EQF level?

7. Entrepreneurship, EQF 5 Premium
© AIRE (Adapting and installing an international vocational training for renewable energy) (2/2012)
Which knowledge, skills and competences does an AIRE specialist need as far as running a company, finding the most economical solutions and calculating projects is concerned?

7. Entrepreneurship, EQf 4 Premium
© AIRE (Adapting and installing an international vocational training for renewable energy) (1/2012)
Which knowledge, skills and competences does an AIRE specialist need as far as running a company, finding the most economical solutions and calculating projects is concerned?

A British view on the German approach towards EPR
© Institut für Abfall- und Kreislaufwirtschaft - TU Dresden (9/2011)
Unlike most of the other EU MSs where the German Grune Punkt (green dot) system has been adopted, although never in full, the UK was determined that it would adopt a different approach. From the start of the UK’s government thinking about the way in which the UK should tackle the publicly and politically prominent issue of packaging waste the German system for EPR for packaging had a profound effect on the way in which the United Kingdom’s legislation and practices for the recovery of packaging waste has been undertaken.

An Economic Analysis of WEEE Policies: Case Studies from Germany and Japan
© Institut für Abfall- und Kreislaufwirtschaft - TU Dresden (9/2011)
The quantity of e-waste is rapidly growing, especially in the industrialized countries where markets continue to be flooded with an ever increasing number of electronic products. Most technologies introduced into the markets today contain electronic parts, and existing equipment will sooner or later be upgraded with digital technology. This is the result of the digital revolution, which has continued to change our lives since the 1980ties. For example, the technological challenges associated with the politically enforced accelerated generation of electrical energy by means of renewable energy sources are, as smart energy, substantially dependent on sophisticated electronic equipment.

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