New Sampling Technique for Coarse Waste Materials from Bales
© Lehrstuhl für Abfallverwertungstechnik und Abfallwirtschaft der Montanuniversität Leoben (11/2016)
Environmental analysis has to deal with the possible sources of error. It is known that the process of sampling is the major source of error (up to 90 % of the total error). The sampling error is scarcely considered, while the insignificant analysis error is included with up to three decimals. However, there are not yet any effective methods to reduce the sampling error, mainly because of the inhomogeneous properties of waste. The aim of the project was to improve the sampling process with the same or an even higher accuracy of the analysis results.

Plastics Recycling and Energy Recovery Activities in Poland – Current Status and Development Prospects –
© TK Verlag - Fachverlag für Kreislaufwirtschaft (9/2016)
The waste disposal system in Poland is one of the least advanced in Europe. Despite great efforts over the last 20 years municipal waste landfilling has only reduced from 95 percent in 1991 to 73 percent in 2010. This still means that millions of tonnes of post-consumer waste continue to be landfilled.

Fully Automated Sorting Plant for Municipal Solid Waste in Oslo with Recovery of Metals, Plastics, Paper and Refuse Derived Fuel
© TK Verlag - Fachverlag für Kreislaufwirtschaft (9/2016)
In order to treat household waste Romerike Avfallsforedling (ROAF) located in Skedsmorkorset north of Oslo, Norway required the installation of a mechanical Treatment facility to process 40,000 tpa. Together with a Norwegian based technical consultancy Mepex and German based technical consultancy EUG the project was tendered and the plant build against a technical specification. In 2013 the project was awarded to Stadler Anlagenbau and since April 2014 the plant is in operation with an hourly throughput of thirty tons. The input waste contains specific green coloured bags containing food waste which is collected together with the residual waste from the households. The process recovers successfully the green food bags before the remaining waste is mechanically pre-treated and screened to isolate a polymer rich fraction which is then fully segregated via NIR technology in to target polymers prior to fully automated product baling. Recoverable Fibre is optically targeted as well as ferrous and non-ferrous metals. All food waste is transported off site for further biological treatment and the remaining residual waste leaves site for thermal recovery. In 2015 the plant has been successfully upgraded to forty tons per hour and remains fully automated including material baling.

Recovery of Metals from Sewage Sludges and Incineration Ashes by Means of Hyperaccumulating Plants
© Lehrstuhl für Abfallverwertungstechnik und Abfallwirtschaft der Montanuniversität Leoben (11/2014)
Sewage sludges as well as ashes from waste incineration plants are known accumulation sinks of many elements that are either important nutrients for biological organisms (phosphorus, potassium, magnesium, etc.) or valuable metals when considered on their own in pure form (nickel, chrome, zinc, etc.); they are also serious pollutants when they occur in wild mixtures at localized anthropogenic end-of-stream points.

Hydrothermal Solution of Heavy Metals from MSWI Fly Ashes
© Lehrstuhl für Abfallverwertungstechnik und Abfallwirtschaft der Montanuniversität Leoben (11/2014)
The solid residues produced during municipal solid waste incineration (MSWI) may be grouped into bottom ashes and fly ashes, which contain appreciable amounts of Fe and non-iron (NE) metals as well. Pure metals like Fe, Al or Cu can be separated from the bottom ashes by physical methods but there are no attempts to extract NE metals which are incorporated in oxide, chloride or silicate mineral phases like Zn and Pb. In MSWI bottom ashes the Zn- and Pb contents vary from 2000 ppm up to 7000 ppm and 1000 ppm up to 3500 ppm, respectively.

Recovery of Critical Metals from Rinsing Water by Zero-Valent Iron
© Lehrstuhl für Abfallverwertungstechnik und Abfallwirtschaft der Montanuniversität Leoben (11/2014)
Raw materials, which are of great economic importance, but for which the risk of supply bottlenecks is valid, are considered as “critical”. Others, where this risk might occur due to market changes are called “potentially critical” (FFG 2012). The following metals are defined as (potentially) critical raw materials either by the EU or by the FFG: Be, Mg, Mn, Ni, Co, Zn, Cr, Al, Ga, In, rare earth elements (REE), Ge, Sb, Nb, Ta, W, V, Mo, platinum group elements (PGE).

Preparation of a Mixed Nf-Metal Fraction for Metallurgical Recovery
© Lehrstuhl für Abfallverwertungstechnik und Abfallwirtschaft der Montanuniversität Leoben (11/2014)
In Germany, thermally treated waste ends up in 4.8 M. tons/a of incineration bottom ash (iba), which contains 7 – 10 wt.-% metallic particles. In iba nonferrous metals (nf) have an amount of 2 – 5 % and are usually separated with eddy-current separators.

Heavy Metals Flows Induced by Plastics Utilisation in the Blast Furnace Process
© Lehrstuhl für Abfallverwertungstechnik und Abfallwirtschaft der Montanuniversität Leoben (11/2014)
Waste plastics can be utilised as an alternative reducing agent in the blast furnace process. There they are substituting for reducing agents such as coke, crude tar or heavy crude oil, for example. However, the utilisation of waste plastics as an alternative reducing agent is also associated with an additional input of heavy metals in the process. These heavy metals are not only relevant for the process stability and the product quality but also from an environmental Point of view. To which extent gaseous emissions or waste water from furnace gas cleaning may be influenced by feedstock recycling of waste plastics has been hardly investigated so far.

Steel Slag Asphalt: Preventing the Waste of a High Quality Resource
© Lehrstuhl für Abfallverwertungstechnik und Abfallwirtschaft der Montanuniversität Leoben (11/2014)
Steel slag is the inevitable by-product of the production of steel, from both the conversion of iron to steel and the recycling of steel scrap. Historically, this material has been sent to a landfi ll as waste, but over the last 100 years or so, a variety of uses have been found for what has proven to be a high quality, valuable resource. With this in mind, the steel industry within Europe now consider iron and steel slag to be products and not waste and as such have registered the materials under Reach (Registration, Evaluation Authorization and Restriction of Chemicals). Steel slag is formed by the addition of lime to the molten metal in order to remove impurities and to control the quality of the steel. The resultant slag is a complex mineral formed from oxides of calcium, aluminium, silicon and magnesium along with various other trace elements. Once cooled, the slag forms a crystalline rock that can be used as a replacement for natural aggregate in a variety of construction products, including asphalt. This paper specifi cally focuses on the use of steel slag as aggregate for asphalt mixtures in road construction and addresses the processing and quality control of the slag, along with its properties and the benefit of these properties for Asphalt materials.

Metal Recycling at Waste Incineration Plants and Mechanical Waste Treatment Plants
© TK Verlag - Fachverlag für Kreislaufwirtschaft (10/2012)
Whether the treatment and sorting facility for metal recycling is right next to a waste incineration plant, or whether this is done at the treatment facility of a dedicated company, is a business decision that has to be taken by each incineration plant individually. Systemically this is of lower priority, although the additional costs for transport will have to be taken into consideration in the climate Balance.

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