Practices and Problems in MSW Management for Bio-Waste in Turkey
© Lehrstuhl für Abfallverwertungstechnik und Abfallwirtschaft der Montanuniversität Leoben (11/2016)
Regarding the integrated solid waste management in Turkey, tremendous efforts have been given to the transposition and implementation of related EU directives. The “By-law” on General Principles of Waste Management (05.07.2008), the “By-law” on Landfilling of Waste (26.03.2010) and many others have been enacted and the management of municipal solid wastes and other special and hazardous wastes has been improved.

Plastics Recycling and Energy Recovery Activities in Poland – Current Status and Development Prospects –
© TK Verlag - Fachverlag für Kreislaufwirtschaft (9/2016)
The waste disposal system in Poland is one of the least advanced in Europe. Despite great efforts over the last 20 years municipal waste landfilling has only reduced from 95 percent in 1991 to 73 percent in 2010. This still means that millions of tonnes of post-consumer waste continue to be landfilled.

Fully Automated Sorting Plant for Municipal Solid Waste in Oslo with Recovery of Metals, Plastics, Paper and Refuse Derived Fuel
© TK Verlag - Fachverlag für Kreislaufwirtschaft (9/2016)
In order to treat household waste Romerike Avfallsforedling (ROAF) located in Skedsmorkorset north of Oslo, Norway required the installation of a mechanical Treatment facility to process 40,000 tpa. Together with a Norwegian based technical consultancy Mepex and German based technical consultancy EUG the project was tendered and the plant build against a technical specification. In 2013 the project was awarded to Stadler Anlagenbau and since April 2014 the plant is in operation with an hourly throughput of thirty tons. The input waste contains specific green coloured bags containing food waste which is collected together with the residual waste from the households. The process recovers successfully the green food bags before the remaining waste is mechanically pre-treated and screened to isolate a polymer rich fraction which is then fully segregated via NIR technology in to target polymers prior to fully automated product baling. Recoverable Fibre is optically targeted as well as ferrous and non-ferrous metals. All food waste is transported off site for further biological treatment and the remaining residual waste leaves site for thermal recovery. In 2015 the plant has been successfully upgraded to forty tons per hour and remains fully automated including material baling.

Future Fuels from Residual Biomass
© Agrar- und Umweltwissenschaftliche Fakultät Rostock (6/2016)
Already at an early stage of biofuels development and production it became obvious, that a potential competition to food and feed production could occur, supported by a number a potential studies and systems analysis. Based on their results a concept was derived for the use of the vast amounts of low grade, residual biomass for use in large scale synthetic biofuels production.

Conversion of the MBT plant at Gescher into a combined residual and organic waste treatment plant
© Wasteconsult international (5/2015)
The Waste Management Company Westmünsterland “EGW” has a mechanical biological waste treatment plant (MBT-plant) for the pretreatment of residual waste in preparation to its disposal in landfills, which was put in operation in 2000. The MBT plant was converted in 2005 to meet new legal requirements. A regenerative thermal oxidizer (RTO) has been added to the biofilter for thermal exhaust air treatment and the tunnel composting was supplemented by an aerated windrow composting unit. Since 2012, theMBT plant was converted towards the biological treatment of separately collected organic waste.

Status and new trends / perspectives of MBT in Germany
© Wasteconsult international (5/2015)
Waste treatment management needs to realign specifications of sustainability of resources. According to present studies, waste treatment management is significantly able to contribute to material and energy recovery from solid waste. In Europe, implementation of the European Waste Framework Directive leads to changing solid waste arisings with regard to amount, quality and disposition. Meanwhile, significant over-capacities of solid waste treatment are present in the german solid waste market. Contradictorily, solid waste arisings are expected to remain static or even decrease against the background of Germany by the Closed Substance Cycle Waste Management Act (KrWG) which will lead to increasing recyclable fractions as well as increasing biowaste. Solid waste which is imported from other European countries currently balances this effect insignificantly.

Expansion to a Comprehensive Bin Collection System for Biowaste in Germany Current situation and perspective for the combined recycling
© Wasteconsult international (5/2015)
The German Waste Management Act (paragraph 11 II) obligates waste producers and mandated waste management authorities to collect biowaste separately from 1 January 2015 onwards. Although most mandated waste management authorities have started offering these waste management services, not all of them have done so. But there is a trend towards a comprehensive offering and expanding existing bin collection systems for biowaste. Rising amounts of biowaste illustrate this effect. The UFOPLAN Research project on the mandatory implementation of separate biowaste collection, released in 2014, saw u.e.c. Berlin and GAVIA examine the implementation of the obligation to collect biowaste separately, existing concerns with the expansion of separate collection and recommendations for optimal system design. This presentation deals with the insights gained from this research project, current trends and the opportunities for the waste management industry.

Obligatory Biowaste Container? Wide Margin of Judgement
© Wasteconsult international (5/2015)
The German Waste Management Act (Kreislaufwirtschaftsgesetz or KrWG) requires mandated waste management authorities to collect bio-waste separately (paragraph 11) – but only as far as this is necessary in order to comply with paragraphs 7 II to IV and paragraph 8 I (recovery requirements). This constraint is important. Whether separate collection is necessary or not depends on what is best for the environment in each case – recovering separately collected biowaste or recovering all or some biowaste together with other waste. Therefore, a life cycle assessment is needed. This presentation Shows that public waste management authorities have a wide margin of judgement when performing this assessment. Even if separate collection proves to be the best environmental option, it does not need to be introduced if not economically reasonable. If the right legal criteria are used to assess economical reasonability, the often-voiced Claim that separate collection is economically unreasonable in only absolutely exceptional cases proves to be wrong.

Experimental check of digestate processing via vermicomposting
© Wasteconsult international (5/2015)
The article examines potential processing of digestate via vermicomposting. The experiments focused on the assessment of the properties of vermicomposts produced from conventional biowastes and biowastes with added digestate. The properties of vermicomposts were examined by means of pot vegetation experiments, agro chemicalanalyses of the growth substrate and of the grown plant mass. The test confirmed that the application of vermicompost with added digestate had a positive effect on the nutrient intake by plants as well as on the quality of the growth substrate. Moreover, there were interesting differences in the contents of hazardous elements. For example, the content of lead analyzed in the substrate made from vermicompost and added digestate was 17.07 mg/kg, whereas in the substrate made from vermicompost only lead amounted to 24.49 mg/kg. In searching for various methods how to process digestate, vermicomposting appears as a feasible Option.

Operation experiences at the MBT Maresme, the latest wet anaerobic digestion plant for MSW built in Spain
© Wasteconsult international (5/2015)
The MBT Maresme is the latest wet anaerobic digestion plant for the Organic Fraction from Municipal Solid Waste (MOR -Materia Orgánica Residual), that has been built in Spain, in countercurrent to the observed development towards MBT plants with only composting technology. In the present paper a short presentation of the MBT Maresme is given before the operation experiences during the start-up phase and the guarantee tests are discussed. Despite the challenge the operation of this facility under aggravating circumstances implied, the achieved performance and clearly advantageous energetic balance confirm the integration of a digestion step in MBT plants as a valid and valuable concept.

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