Plastics Recycling and Energy Recovery Activities in Poland – Current Status and Development Prospects –
© TK Verlag - Fachverlag für Kreislaufwirtschaft (9/2016)
The waste disposal system in Poland is one of the least advanced in Europe. Despite great efforts over the last 20 years municipal waste landfilling has only reduced from 95 percent in 1991 to 73 percent in 2010. This still means that millions of tonnes of post-consumer waste continue to be landfilled.

Fully Automated Sorting Plant for Municipal Solid Waste in Oslo with Recovery of Metals, Plastics, Paper and Refuse Derived Fuel
© TK Verlag - Fachverlag für Kreislaufwirtschaft (9/2016)
In order to treat household waste Romerike Avfallsforedling (ROAF) located in Skedsmorkorset north of Oslo, Norway required the installation of a mechanical Treatment facility to process 40,000 tpa. Together with a Norwegian based technical consultancy Mepex and German based technical consultancy EUG the project was tendered and the plant build against a technical specification. In 2013 the project was awarded to Stadler Anlagenbau and since April 2014 the plant is in operation with an hourly throughput of thirty tons. The input waste contains specific green coloured bags containing food waste which is collected together with the residual waste from the households. The process recovers successfully the green food bags before the remaining waste is mechanically pre-treated and screened to isolate a polymer rich fraction which is then fully segregated via NIR technology in to target polymers prior to fully automated product baling. Recoverable Fibre is optically targeted as well as ferrous and non-ferrous metals. All food waste is transported off site for further biological treatment and the remaining residual waste leaves site for thermal recovery. In 2015 the plant has been successfully upgraded to forty tons per hour and remains fully automated including material baling.

The dry anaerobic DRANCO technology applied to the organic fraction of MSW
© Wasteconsult international (5/2015)
The DRANCO technology was developed in the eighties as one of the very first anaerobic digestion technologies for municipal solid waste (MSW). A first demonstration plant was erected in 1984 in Ghent, Belgium. At present about thirty DRANCO installations are constructed in about fifteen different countries. This paper describes these DRANCO installations treating the organic fraction of MSW, integrated in a mechanicalbiological treatment plant (MBT). It does not describe DRANCO installations dealing with source separated biowaste.

Fields of Research in Optical Sorting of Different Types of Waste
© TK Verlag - Fachverlag für Kreislaufwirtschaft (10/2012)
Optical sorting appeared for the first time in 1994 in Germany, France and in the USA. Initially, it was limited to the recognition of the main packaging types, as found in the "yellow bin", using the NIR spectroscopy to differentiate molecular bonds: PET, HDPE, PVC, Tetrapak were the main targets. Colour sorting was later introduced for very fine colour nuances (e.g. clear vs light blue bottles). Today, most MRFs in Europe use Optical Sorting for packaging.

Current compost production in Izmir and the utilization of the residues from composting process
© Universität Stuttgart - ISWA (11/2008)
Landfilling is the main disposal method to remove organic solid waste in Turkey. Even if the domestic solid waste generally has high water content and it is reach by means of biodegradables, the number of composting facilities is limited and they are mainly located in the cities with high population. However, composting is an advantageous method for the countries having both high amounts of organics in their waste and widespread agricultural activities, such as Turkey. Limited landfilling areas and difficulties to locate new landfills are the effects to aim composting, as well as it is the priority disposal method of Turkish Ministry of Environment and Forestry.

COMPARATIVE EVALUATION OF SRF AND RDF CO-COMBUSTION WITH COAL IN A FLUIDISED BED COMBUSTOR
© IWWG International Waste Working Group (10/2007)
Increasing fossil fuel prices and greenhouse gas (GHG) reduction requirements compels energy users to utilise cost effective materials that also have a significant biomass fraction. The biomass fraction is considered ‘carbon neutral’ and does not contribute towards GHG emissions. The UK, like many Member States, is facing challenging landfill diversion targets for BMW (biodegradable municipal waste) to fulfil the Landfill Directive (Council Directive, 1999) requirements (Garg et al., 2007). According to the latest data, the UK landfilled ca. 62% of total MSW in 2005-06 (Defra, 2006).

ENGINEERING PROPERTIES OF MSW LANDFILL DAILY COVERS USING WASTE TIRE CHIPS AND PAPER SLUDGE
© IWWG International Waste Working Group (10/2007)
Soils are the traditional materials for municipal solid waste (MSW) landfill daily covers, but their performance is debatable, particularly in consumption of the valuable landfill space (Aivaliotis & al. 1995; Greedy 1995; Haughey 2001; Panagiotakopoulos and Dokas 2001; Aivaliotis & al. 2004) and in contribution to waste mass hydraulic heterogeneity and instability (Hancock & al. 1999, Jang 2000, Dixon and Jones 2005). The use of waste materials, which should be disposed of to landfills, as landfill daily covers encourages the practice of waste recycling and thereby prolongs the life of existing landfills. In addition, it also provides a practical solution to places where suitable soils are not readily available.

ANALISYS OF STRUCTURE OF WASTE EMISSION IN TOKYO BY INTERREGIONAL WASTE INPUT-OUTPUT TABLE
© IWWG International Waste Working Group (10/2007)
Waste generation is inevitable accompanied with economic activities. It is necessary for dealing with the waste problem to clarify the relationship between economic activities and waste generation. Input-output analysis is a conventional method to describe the flow of goods and services among different sectors of the economy. Recent years, new usefulness was found in input-output analysis as an effective method for LCA, especially for the waste treatment problem. There are pioneering research works by Professor Leontief which develop the conventional input-output analysis to deal with the flow of waste (Leontief, 1970, 1972, & Duchin, 1990). Nakamura and Kondo et al. also adopted this method to extend the conventional input-output model to the waste input-output model, which was called WIO (Kondo et al., 2002). (Session A15: LCA in waste management)

LIFE CYCLE ASSESSMENT OF MSW RECYCLING
© IWWG International Waste Working Group (10/2007)
The municipal solid waste (MSW) generation in Italy in 2005 was 31.7 million metric tones, corresponding to an average of 539 kg per capita. In the same year, the source - separated collection of recyclables and compostables was equal to 24.3% of the total Italian MSW production (APAT-ONR, 2006). (Session A10: Waste recycling (II))

DEVELOPMENT OF THE ATHENS MUNICIPALITY RECYCLING PROGRAM: AN INTEGRATED APPROACH FROM CONCEPT TO IMPLEMENTATION
© IWWG International Waste Working Group (10/2007)
The Decree 2939/2001 “on packaging and the alternative management of packaging and other products” integrates into the Greek national law the EU Packaging Directive (94/62/EC) and sets accordingly the quantitative targets for packaging waste recycling and recovery, as well as regulating the organizational framework for the “alternative management” of packaging waste, i.e. their recycling and recovery, which diverts them from landfilling. Under this framework, the compulsory organization of and participation in “alternative management systems” by those introducing packaging into the Greek market (producers or importers) is foreseen, according to the “polluter pays” principle. (Session A10: Waste recycling (II))

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