bifa Text No. 64: Hygienically optimised collection of biowastes with ecovio biowaste bags
© bifa Umweltinstitut GmbH (7/2014)
In the bifa Text No 64, the collection of biowaste without biowaste bags was compared to collection in paper bags, PE bags and biowaste bags made of the compostable plastic ecovio.

Municipal solid waste incineration in Milano (Italy)
© TK Verlag - Fachverlag für Kreislaufwirtschaft (3/2010)
Since 1907 Amsa company operated in the city of Milano in the solid waste collection and disposal business. Established as a private company, in 1958 became totally public, owned by the Municipality of Milano. Other city public services, like gas and potable water distribution, sewage operation, electric power distribution and public transportation were given to several separated companies.

Transportation cost and CO2 emissions of the municipal waste transportation network in the region of Eastern Macedonia-Thrace, Greece
© Aristotle University of Thessaloniki (6/2009)
According to the previously approved Waste Management Plan RWMP, of the year 2005, one Integrated Waste Management Unit (IWMU) was scheduled to function in the prefecture of Xanthi, to serve the population of the whole Region of Eastern Macedonia and Thrace. In order for the waste transportation system to be optimized, towards the IWMU, a suitable network of 15 Waste Transportation Stations (WTS) and 6 Recycling Centers (RC) was designed accordingly.

Results of the Twinning-project TR04/IB/EN/01 “Special Waste”
© Universität Stuttgart - ISWA (11/2008)
The project was carried out from November 2006 to May 2008 (30 months) and aimed at implementing four EC Directives in the field of Waste Oil, Polychlorinated Biphenyls and Terphenyls, End-of-Life Vehicles, and Used Batteries and Accumulators as well as at implementing the Commission Decision on a List of Wastes which constitutes the indispensable differentiation between hazardous and non-hazardous wastes. Although the directives deal with very different issues, the link between them as a superior goal was the spirit of sustainable waste management and producer responsibility. The project was funded by the European Union.

SOLID WASTE MANAGEMENT IN SMALL MUNICIPALITIES: THE CASE HISTORY OF PIRAÍ (RJ), BRAZIL
© IWWG International Waste Working Group (10/2007)
Urban solid waste management in developing countries has been one of the major problems faced by public administration, and many municipalities have deficient domestic waste collection, poor street cleaning services and their waste disposal in open dumps. The management of urban solid waste is presently a serious problem in the majority of Brazilian municipalities. Although there has been some improvement in the past few years, more than 70% of the municipalities still dispose of their waste in open dumps, with notorious consequences to the environment and public health. In Rio de Janeiro State, only three municipalities have sanitary landfills licensed by the Environment State Agency.

THE MANAGEMENT OF SOLID WASTES IN ECONOMICALLY DEVELOPING COUNTRIES – MAJOR NEEDS
© IWWG International Waste Working Group (10/2007)
Currently, the protection of public health and of the environment through the use of appropriate methods of solid waste management is gaining importance in a large number of economically developing countries (DCs).Some of the most important threats to public health and environmental quality in DCs are related to inefficient collection methods and insufficient coverage of the collection system, combined with improper disposal of municipal solid wastes and contaminated sources of water supply. Despite the fact that these threats have been evident over the last few years, pollution control and environmental management have been given little or no attention in many DCs. Government policies have emphasized industrial development.

MUNICIPAL SOLID WASTE MANAGEMENT: A METHODOLOGY TO MONITOR THE SERVICE QUALITY
© IWWG International Waste Working Group (10/2007)
Efficiency, quality, sustainable prices, and availability of public services contribute to determine the quality of life of citizens (Kirkpatrick and Lucio, 1995). Among these services, the municipal solid waste services, due to its direct influence on the urban environment, to the resulting cost on the citizens, and to the competing private companies, still necessitates significant improvement with regard to efficiency and resources (human, financial and structural) allocation.

LIFE CYCLE IMPACT ASSESSMENT A CASE STUDY OF SOLID WASTE COLLECTION
© IWWG International Waste Working Group (10/2007)
System impact comparisons are made at all levels of society. At the individual level: should I buy a small economical car and rent a bigger one when I need to transport bigger items, or shall I buy a bigger car? At the industrial level when facing escalating labor costs: should my enterprise invest in a new production unit in a Low-Income Country (LIC), or should I robotize my existing enterprise in the High-Income Country (HIC)? Often we tend to make these impact comparisons or parts thereof rather intuitive and equally often our impact comparisons turn out to cover only those aspects of the system which are relatively easy to compare. It goes without saying that this way we may miss out on elements which are of importance.

CONCEPTUAL MODELS TO OPTIMIZE THE HAUL, TRANSFER AND DISPOSAL OF MUNICIPAL SOLID WASTE
© IWWG International Waste Working Group (10/2007)
Linear and integer programming can be a useful decision support tool when optimizing solid waste management systems. Optimizing the haul, transfer and final disposal of MSW through linear programming has been a typical optimization problem since the ‘70s, when emphasis was given to finding the optimum collection routes (Truitt et al., 1969) as well as to determining facility locations and capacities (Esmaili, 1972; Kirka 1988; Or and Curi, 1993).

ENVIRONMENTAL EVALUATION OF HOUSEHOLD WASTE MANAGEMENT SYSTEM IN SOUTHERN GERMANY
© IWWG International Waste Working Group (10/2007)
As one of the cornerstones of sustainable materials management, integrated solid waste management strives towards the harmonization of economic, environmental and social benefits by appropriately steering post-consumer material flows. The adequate management of waste streams from society requires the integration of different technologies into a system, which minimizes the hazards on human health and the environment and maximizes the resource recovery, while being economically and socially sustainable.

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