Future Development of Waste Management in China According to the 13th Five-Year Plan
© TK Verlag - Fachverlag für Kreislaufwirtschaft (9/2016)
Municipal solid waste (MSW) known as trash or garbage consists of food waste, paper, cardboard, plastics, PET, glass, textiles, metals, wood and leather, nappies, slug, ash, etc. are arising from human and animal activities. The rapid development and urbanization of China have resulted in an increasing volume of MSW. So the problem of MSW management has become a major social problem, but one the other hand, because of their intrinsic properties, MSW are often reusable and may be considered a resource for energy recovery. The delivering quantity of household waste averages 179 million tons in China, and the amount of untreated MSW over the years has reached 7 billion tons.

International Experience of Risks Sharing between Public and Private Entities in Energy-from-Waste Plants Construction
© TK Verlag - Fachverlag für Kreislaufwirtschaft (9/2016)
Imagine that you are the mayor of a city named Metropolis and are in Charge of School logistics. Before doing so, you might have to ask yourself a few essential questions. What kind of transportation will you provide? Who will it benefit: students, staff or both? Where will the service be provided? When will it be provided: in the evening, morning? And finally, how much will it cost? All these essential questions need to be answered before starting to implement this project and to buy your buses. By doing so, planning, financing, building and operating the chosen mean of Transportation will become an easier task. After that, your political decisions will direct the choice of implication of private sector on the different aspects of your project.

bifa Text No. 64: Hygienically optimised collection of biowastes with ecovio biowaste bags
© bifa Umweltinstitut GmbH (7/2014)
In the bifa Text No 64, the collection of biowaste without biowaste bags was compared to collection in paper bags, PE bags and biowaste bags made of the compostable plastic ecovio.

The separate collection of residential organic waste in the city of Milan (Italy)
© European Compost Network ECN e.V. (6/2014)
The challenge of collecting the separate fractions of urban waste is at its highest when doing so from areas of high population densities with high levels of multi-occupancy housing. The City of Milan is one such area with a population density of 7000/km2 and over 80% of housing classified as multi-occupancy. In this respect it is similar to other European cities like Barcelona, Berlin and Vienna but unlike these cities, since 2012 Milan has been collecting food waste using the intensive door to door system widely adopted in less dense territories.

Monitoring and Evaluation of waste prevention activities in Selected Groups
© European Compost Network ECN e.V. (6/2014)
According to Waste Framework Directive (directive 2008/98/EC), waste prevention are the measures taken before a substance, material or product has become waste, that reduce the quantity of waste, the adverse impacts of the generated waste on environmental and human health or the content of harmful substances.

Planning, starting, optimising separate collection of organics: approaches and results (including city centres)
© European Compost Network ECN e.V. (6/2014)
Separate collection of organics is a key part of schemes to achieve highest rates of recovery of materials. Also, it allows recovery of clean organic resources, which are then suitable for application onto farmlands, thereby causing multiple beneficial effects as - locking C in soils (which helps tackling climate change) - fighting desertification and erosion - reducing use of mineral fertilisers (and eutrophication that may occur in sensitive areas and wetlands) - preventing pathogens thanks to the suppressive power (which reduces use of pesticides), etc.

Operational viability of including selective biowaste collection in the city of Campo Grande, MS, Brazil
© European Compost Network ECN e.V. (6/2014)
The recent Brazilian Solid Waste Policy establishes that the Municipality is responsible for awarding separate collection systems, composting system to implant biowaste and articulate with the economic and social agents ways to use the compost produced, however, there are operational hurdles that hinder their implementation. The biowaste in Brazil represent about 60% of total domestic waste collected, and in most cities these wastes are destined for landfills or dumps. In Campo Grande, MS, there is selective collection for dry waste and the biowaste is collected as undifferentiated. Therefore, this paper proposes an analysis of the operational viability of including biowaste in the selective collection of the Municipality, inclusion of recyclable materials in the organic recycling process and the identification of potential consumers for the generated compost.

Leakage control of Biogas plants
© European Compost Network ECN e.V. (6/2012)
Anaerobic digestion has become a very important technology to treat organic waste and to generate renewable energy. During construction and operation leaks at biogas plants may occur and methane is emitted. Further Authors: S. Neitzel - Systemtechnik Weser-Ems S. Kohne - esders Ltd

Compost Quality assesment and eow processus application to 4 types of compost
© European Compost Network ECN e.V. (6/2012)
Analysis of compost is of major importance because it directly impacts on its final destination. According to the level ofcontamination and the national standards in each country, compost can be used on all crops including edible vegetables,on extended agriculture, on restoration lands, as landfill cover or simply landfilled if too contaminated. The End ofWaste process introduced by the Waste Framework Directive 2008/98 and currently managed by the Joint ResearchCentre in Seville is moving a step forward. Further Author: Y. Decelle - SITA Belgium

Experimental Analysis of the Aerobic stabilization Efficiency of an existing MBT plant
© European Compost Network ECN e.V. (6/2012)
The management of the Municipal Solid Waste (MSW) has been strongly improved by the last Waste FrameworkDirective 2008/98/CE, by increasing the amount of waste materials that have to be reutilized, prepared for reutilizationand/or recycled. In any case, even if these goals will be achieved, a large amount of residual MSW from the SourceSegregated collection (SS) will need to be properly managed.Incineration is a quite suitable way for managing these materials even if it is costly and not homogenously spread in thedifferent European Areas. Further Authors: A. Sordi - LAR - Dipartimento di Ingegneria Industriale C. Micale - LAR - Dipartimento di Ingegneria Industriale G. Cirulli - LAR - Dipartimento di Ingegneria Industriale

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