A System Model of the Recycling of Critical Raw Materials from Wastes and By-Products in Austria
© Lehrstuhl für Abfallverwertungstechnik und Abfallwirtschaft der Montanuniversität Leoben (11/2016)
The development of the high-technology industry plays an important role for the economic growth particularly in industrialized countries. This industry has a big demand on raw materials which are considered critical due to their economic importance and their associated supply risk (e.g., REE, gallium, germanium, PGE and tantalum). Subsumed under the collective term critical raw materials (CRMs), 14 of these materials were first defined by the Resource Initiative of the European Commission in 2010 and have been updated to 20 in 2014, since the supply with CRMs is crucial for European economies. In consequence the Austrian economic location, being part of the European economic area with a developing high-technology industry also depends in CRMs. Therefore also the Austrian Ministry for Transport, Innovation and Technology defined a specific list of materials that are critical or potentially critical for the country and the future manufacture of technological products as well.

Resource Recovery from Waste Using the Input Flexibility of Waste Gasification Technology
© TK Verlag - Fachverlag für Kreislaufwirtschaft (9/2016)
Nowadays, gasification of waste or biomass is becoming the great interest all over the world. Especially, gasification of municipal solid waste (MSW) has been well-researched in Japan. The development of MSW gasification technology was started in the 1970s in Japan because of oil crisis. Several technologies have been researched and developed. The Direct Melting System (DMS), which is the gasification and melting technology developed by Nippon Steel & Sumikin Engineering Co., Ltd., is one of the developed waste gasification technologies in this era. This technology was introduced for commercial use in Kamaishi City, Japan in 1979. As well as this waste technology, other gasification technologies have been developed for commercial use and installed.

Future Development of Waste Management in China According to the 13th Five-Year Plan
© TK Verlag - Fachverlag für Kreislaufwirtschaft (9/2016)
Municipal solid waste (MSW) known as trash or garbage consists of food waste, paper, cardboard, plastics, PET, glass, textiles, metals, wood and leather, nappies, slug, ash, etc. are arising from human and animal activities. The rapid development and urbanization of China have resulted in an increasing volume of MSW. So the problem of MSW management has become a major social problem, but one the other hand, because of their intrinsic properties, MSW are often reusable and may be considered a resource for energy recovery. The delivering quantity of household waste averages 179 million tons in China, and the amount of untreated MSW over the years has reached 7 billion tons.

How to Optimize Recycling Rates Using Waste Incineration
© TK Verlag - Fachverlag für Kreislaufwirtschaft (9/2016)
The improvement of recycling and reuse of waste is becoming more and more important and it is generally preferred compared to waste incineration. In fact, the incineration of waste is often considered the last alternative when recycling of a certain waste fraction is technically not possible or there is simply no market for the corresponding fraction of the waste. But instead of considering waste incineration as being contradictory to recycling, it may also be considered as an alternative way to achieve higher recycling rates. The main goal of waste to energy is the use of the chemical energy contained in the carbon and drogen, and transfer this into thermal energy. But all other elements contained in the waste will of course also be found in the various residue streams leaving the plant. For these residue streams there are possibilities for further treatment, enabling Separation of certain elements, improvement of the quality of a residue stream to allow re-use on the market or even potential for the preparation of a new product.

Disposal of Carbon Fiber Reinforced Polymers – Problems During Recycling and Impacts on Waste Incineration
© TK Verlag - Fachverlag für Kreislaufwirtschaft (9/2016)
Carbon fiber reinforced polymers (CFRPs) are becoming increasingly more ubiquitous in our daily lives. CFRPs are composite materials, consisting of carbon fibers with high mechanical capabilities and a formative polymer matrix. The production process of carbon fibers is complex and energy intensive, thus making CFRPs more expensive than comparable metal materials. The advantage of CFRPs lies in their weight; metal materials of the same properties weight up to five times as much. This makes CFRPs especially valuable in areas, where weight and cost directly correlate, but high mechanical properties are still essential.

Plastics Recycling and Energy Recovery Activities in Poland – Current Status and Development Prospects –
© TK Verlag - Fachverlag für Kreislaufwirtschaft (9/2016)
The waste disposal system in Poland is one of the least advanced in Europe. Despite great efforts over the last 20 years municipal waste landfilling has only reduced from 95 percent in 1991 to 73 percent in 2010. This still means that millions of tonnes of post-consumer waste continue to be landfilled.

Waste as a chance - Waste recycling in Zimbabwe
© Eigenbeiträge der Autoren (6/2016)
Norton, a small town with 60,000 inhabitants about 40 km west of Harare, the capital of Zimbabwe, has no adequate waste management infrastructure. No regular waste separation system has been implemented. Approximately 85% of the households have a regular residual waste collection. The waste is however brought to the dumpsite without any treatment. For many years there was a dumpsite which had neither sealing nor treatment systems for protecting soil, groundwater or the atmosphere, therefore it was harming the environment.

From Waste to Resources – MBT Technology Through The Ages
© Wasteconsult international (5/2015)
In 2012, 493 kg of municipal waste were produced per person in Europe. Denmark, with 668 kg of municipal waste per person, produced the highest per-capita amount of waste, followed by Cyprus, Luxembourg and Germany with each generating more than 600 kg per person. An enormous amount of goods used in everyday life is produced from plastic: bottles, shopping bags, disposable tableware, pipes, discs, textile fibres, furnishings, and many more.

Effect of Recycling Bin and Recycling Rates on the Composition of Residual Waste
© Wasteconsult international (5/2015)
The new German Waste Management Act (KrWG) defined a new five-step waste hierarchy (paragraph 6) that lays out the fundamental sequence from waste prevention, reuse, recycling, other recovery operations (including energy recovery) to disposal. Moreover, paragraph 14 stipulates that at least 65 % of municipal solid waste and at least 70 % of construction and demolition waste should be recycled by 2020. Biowaste, paper, metal, plastic and glass waste are to be collected separately under the provisions of paragraph 11 I and paragraph 14 I of the Act from 1 January 2015 at the latest. These rules aim to unlock the high resource potential of wastes with intrinsic value even more efficiently.

bifa Text No. 64: Hygienically optimised collection of biowastes with ecovio biowaste bags
© bifa Umweltinstitut GmbH (7/2014)
In the bifa Text No 64, the collection of biowaste without biowaste bags was compared to collection in paper bags, PE bags and biowaste bags made of the compostable plastic ecovio.

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