Improved Eco-Design of Lithium-Ion Battery Packs for Simplifying the Recycling Process
© Lehrstuhl für Abfallverwertungstechnik und Abfallwirtschaft der Montanuniversität Leoben (11/2016)
Due to the increasing numbers of lithium-ion batteries in electric cars as well as in electric and electronic equipment, the design and recycling of batteries is gaining increasing importance. This fact demands for an efficient and holistic battery concept as well as a future concept for recycling and treatment.

Improvement of hazardous waste management in Turkey through introduction of a web-based system for data collection and quality control
© Wasteconsult international (6/2010)
The Waste Framework Directive (WASTE FRAMEWORK DIRECTIVE, 2008) specifies certain measures to ensure that waste is recovered or disposed of in accordance with Article 13, i.e. without endangering human health or harming the environment. Specific measures laid down in the WFD include the introduction and common use of appropriate classification systems (LoW: Art. 7; recovery and disposal codes: Annex I and II), the principle of producer responsibility (Art. 14, Art. 15), the issue of permits for waste treatment facilities (Art. 23), the drafting of waste management plans (Art. 28), the requirement that the actors of waste management shall be subject to appropriate periodic inspections (Art 34) and their obligation to keep records on their activities (Art. 35).

Hazardous waste classification and re-use (end of waste) by New Waste Directive, CLP and REACH Regulations
© Wasteconsult international (6/2010)
Hazardous waste’ means waste which displays one or more of the hazardous properties H. Attribution of the hazardous properties H is derived from risk phrases R coming from Directives 67/548/EEC and 1999/45/EC. New CLP Regulation (repealing above Directives) in place of risk phrases R introduces hazard statements H. That means, that soon we will derive hazardous properties H (1 or 2-digit) from hazard statements H (3-digit) of it’s components.

Plasma gasification for waste treatment and energy production
© Aristotle University of Thessaloniki (6/2009)
The application of various technologies that convert Municipal Solid Waste (MSW) to energy and other by-products for beneficial reuse has become an issue at the forefront of integrated solid waste management.

Results of the Twinning-project TR04/IB/EN/01 “Special Waste”
© Universität Stuttgart - ISWA (11/2008)
The project was carried out from November 2006 to May 2008 (30 months) and aimed at implementing four EC Directives in the field of Waste Oil, Polychlorinated Biphenyls and Terphenyls, End-of-Life Vehicles, and Used Batteries and Accumulators as well as at implementing the Commission Decision on a List of Wastes which constitutes the indispensable differentiation between hazardous and non-hazardous wastes. Although the directives deal with very different issues, the link between them as a superior goal was the spirit of sustainable waste management and producer responsibility. The project was funded by the European Union.

RECYCLING OF SPENT NI-MH BATTERIES FOR RECOVERY OF SOME HEAVY METALS
© IWWG International Waste Working Group (10/2007)
Recycling of spent nickel-metal hydride batteries is categorized one of the public service tasks of the human communities. This is to comply with the constraints raised by the Law and related legislations assigned for the environment protection against hazardous wastes. The world demand of metals is progressively increasing meanwhile primary resources are depleting. Recovery of metals of concern from secondary resources would partly satisfy such world demand. Conventional rechargeable batteries often fail the needs of consumers and equipment designers in terms of their size and weight, operating time of-use, availability and environmental acceptability. Lupe, C., and Pilone D. 2002 showed that a type of sealed nickel-metal hydride battery is one offering significant improvements over conventional rechargeable batteries.

BEHAVIOR OF MERCURY FROM USED BATTERIES IN LANDFILLS OVER 20 YEARS
© IWWG International Waste Working Group (10/2007)
In Japan, used batteries are collected as incombustible municipal waste, and the majority is landfilled. In 1983, it was determined that the used batteries in daily life contained mercury, and the fact the mercury-containing batteries, which were disposed of as waste raised fears of environmental mercury pollution.

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