A New Methodical Approach for Environmental Impact Assessment (EIA) Related to MSW Landfills in Russia
© Lehrstuhl für Abfallverwertungstechnik und Abfallwirtschaft der Montanuniversität Leoben (11/2016)
Nowadays, the most widespread method of MSW disposal in Russia is landfilling, using the most primitive landfilling technology. On an average, only 3-4 % of municipal solid waste is recycled, but the majority of waste is taken to dumps — there are about 11 thousand in Russia with an area of more than 11,000 hectares of land. About 82 billion tons of waste is buried in them. This fact requires that a full-fledged and accurate assessment of this activity and its influence on Environment has to be carried out before its implementation.

New Sampling Technique for Coarse Waste Materials from Bales
© Lehrstuhl für Abfallverwertungstechnik und Abfallwirtschaft der Montanuniversität Leoben (11/2016)
Environmental analysis has to deal with the possible sources of error. It is known that the process of sampling is the major source of error (up to 90 % of the total error). The sampling error is scarcely considered, while the insignificant analysis error is included with up to three decimals. However, there are not yet any effective methods to reduce the sampling error, mainly because of the inhomogeneous properties of waste. The aim of the project was to improve the sampling process with the same or an even higher accuracy of the analysis results.

Improved Eco-Design of Lithium-Ion Battery Packs for Simplifying the Recycling Process
© Lehrstuhl für Abfallverwertungstechnik und Abfallwirtschaft der Montanuniversität Leoben (11/2016)
Due to the increasing numbers of lithium-ion batteries in electric cars as well as in electric and electronic equipment, the design and recycling of batteries is gaining increasing importance. This fact demands for an efficient and holistic battery concept as well as a future concept for recycling and treatment.

A System Model of the Recycling of Critical Raw Materials from Wastes and By-Products in Austria
© Lehrstuhl für Abfallverwertungstechnik und Abfallwirtschaft der Montanuniversität Leoben (11/2016)
The development of the high-technology industry plays an important role for the economic growth particularly in industrialized countries. This industry has a big demand on raw materials which are considered critical due to their economic importance and their associated supply risk (e.g., REE, gallium, germanium, PGE and tantalum). Subsumed under the collective term critical raw materials (CRMs), 14 of these materials were first defined by the Resource Initiative of the European Commission in 2010 and have been updated to 20 in 2014, since the supply with CRMs is crucial for European economies. In consequence the Austrian economic location, being part of the European economic area with a developing high-technology industry also depends in CRMs. Therefore also the Austrian Ministry for Transport, Innovation and Technology defined a specific list of materials that are critical or potentially critical for the country and the future manufacture of technological products as well.

Material vs. Energy Recovery – An Assessment Using Computational Tools NERUDA and JUSTINE
© Lehrstuhl für Abfallverwertungstechnik und Abfallwirtschaft der Montanuniversität Leoben (11/2016)
The paper describes a continuing work on a unique approach of a Waste-to-Energy (WtE) Project assessment and related risk analysing. It is based on long time developed computational tools NERUDA and JUSTINE which support decision making in the field of waste Management.

Polymer Recyclates for Technical Parts - Rec2TecPart
© Lehrstuhl für Abfallverwertungstechnik und Abfallwirtschaft der Montanuniversität Leoben (11/2016)
Society and legislation are focusing more and more on sustainability due to ecological and economic reasons. This means that materials in general have to be used in a more sustainable way and that waste has to be turned into a valuable resource again. Searching for sustainable approaches the resource efficiency has come into play.

Recycling of Phosphorus - Application of Slag and Ashes in Agriculture
© Lehrstuhl für Abfallverwertungstechnik und Abfallwirtschaft der Montanuniversität Leoben (11/2016)
Phosphorus is of essential importance in plant growth and yield. For many decades Thomas slag from basic steelmaking has been a highly appreciated phosphorus fertilizer in agriculture. In the 1960s changes in steelmaking were the reason for declining amounts of phosphorus slag in steelmaking until in the midst 1990s no phosphorus slag was any longer available for agriculture purposes.

Effect of Organic Carbon in MSWI Bottom Ash on the Mobilization of Heavy Metals
© Lehrstuhl für Abfallverwertungstechnik und Abfallwirtschaft der Montanuniversität Leoben (11/2016)
Nowadays municipal solid waste incinerators (MSWI) are playing a major role in waste Management activities. Especially in Switzerland, where the morphology of the country is quite disadvantageous, burning the municipal waste material seems to be the most favorable way to handle These types of waste.

An Investigation on GIS-based Estimation of Municipal Solid Waste Generation
© Lehrstuhl für Abfallverwertungstechnik und Abfallwirtschaft der Montanuniversität Leoben (11/2016)
All planning, design and evaluation practices – from selection of waste bins (i.e. the number and the capacity) to evaluating alternative disposal options and planning Actions for waste reduction – in municipal solid waste (MSW) management depend on the solid waste generation data. Solid waste generation is affected by different aspects. So, setting a general approach (forecasting model) for the estimation of solid waste generation in all regions or cities is impossible. This behavior, in turn, is affected by many other factors. These range from environmental factors to economic and demographic factors. GIS are effective tools for the analysis of spatial variability (distribution) of demographic factors (e.g. population), and thus solid waste generation. This study aims to analyze spatial relationship between MSW generation and demographic factor “population” and estimate solid waste generation rate in Turkey by applying a GIS-based statistical approach.

Resource Recovery from Waste Using the Input Flexibility of Waste Gasification Technology
© TK Verlag - Fachverlag für Kreislaufwirtschaft (9/2016)
Nowadays, gasification of waste or biomass is becoming the great interest all over the world. Especially, gasification of municipal solid waste (MSW) has been well-researched in Japan. The development of MSW gasification technology was started in the 1970s in Japan because of oil crisis. Several technologies have been researched and developed. The Direct Melting System (DMS), which is the gasification and melting technology developed by Nippon Steel & Sumikin Engineering Co., Ltd., is one of the developed waste gasification technologies in this era. This technology was introduced for commercial use in Kamaishi City, Japan in 1979. As well as this waste technology, other gasification technologies have been developed for commercial use and installed.

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