Current State of Biowaste Management in the Czech Republic
© Lehrstuhl für Abfallverwertungstechnik und Abfallwirtschaft der Montanuniversität Leoben (11/2016)
The Czech Republic currently strives to comply with its obligations towards EU biowaste management requirements. The decisive Council Directive 1999/31/EC on the landfill of waste obliges all the EU member states, including the Czech Republic, to drastically reduce landfilling of biodegradable wastes or biodegradable municipal waste.

New Trends of Circular Economy in the City of Velika Gorica
© Lehrstuhl für Abfallverwertungstechnik und Abfallwirtschaft der Montanuniversität Leoben (11/2016)
For a number of years, the city of Velika Gorica has been developing waste management projects, and the actual waste management system situation of the city of Velika Gorica is the result of its gradual and strategical development since the late 1990s. The waste is a very important resource in the concept of circular economy and the construction of infrastructure in Velika Gorica will ensure foundations for circular economy.

Changes in the Solid Waste Composition of Metropolitan Cities: A Case Study for Izmir
© Lehrstuhl für Abfallverwertungstechnik und Abfallwirtschaft der Montanuniversität Leoben (11/2016)
Knowledge of municipal solid waste amount, composition and characterization in an area plays a key role for the decision makers to determine the proper waste management system and final disposal options. Depending on various factors such as population increases, climatic changes, lifestyle habits, and socio-economic developments, the solid waste amount and composition continuously change in time. Lack of waste data is a big problem in Turkey which is a developing country with young population and rapid industrialization. There are numbers of composition and characterization studies conducted in different districts in Turkey by independent researchers. Nevertheless, continuous regular data is necessary for proper solid waste management.

Evaluation of SRF Production from Biodegradable MSW: A Case Study for Izmir City-Turkey
© Lehrstuhl für Abfallverwertungstechnik und Abfallwirtschaft der Montanuniversität Leoben (11/2016)
Waste is a significant and inevitable consequences of human activities; therefore, solid waste management becomes the most important and difficult problem for cities. The development in modern civilization and the increase in the population increase the amount of solid waste generated and change the composition of the solid waste. The increasing consumption of raw materials both produces more waste and requires new sources.

Future Development of Waste Management in China According to the 13th Five-Year Plan
© TK Verlag - Fachverlag für Kreislaufwirtschaft (9/2016)
Municipal solid waste (MSW) known as trash or garbage consists of food waste, paper, cardboard, plastics, PET, glass, textiles, metals, wood and leather, nappies, slug, ash, etc. are arising from human and animal activities. The rapid development and urbanization of China have resulted in an increasing volume of MSW. So the problem of MSW management has become a major social problem, but one the other hand, because of their intrinsic properties, MSW are often reusable and may be considered a resource for energy recovery. The delivering quantity of household waste averages 179 million tons in China, and the amount of untreated MSW over the years has reached 7 billion tons.

Measures to Implement an Advanced Waste Management System in the Czech Republic
© TK Verlag - Fachverlag für Kreislaufwirtschaft (9/2016)
The Czech Republic is now preparing the new complete revision of waste law. The transformation of the waste management into the circular economy started through the legislative process in June 2016. Waste management plan of the Czech Republic for 2015 to 2024 clearly specifies waste strategy and priorities for the country. Thus, in the Act on waste the ban on landfilling of recyclable and recoverable waste in 2024, obligatory separate collection of main municipal waste streams including biowaste since 2015 and currently proposed increase of waste landfilling tax with strict recycling targets already in 2018 are only the first milestones leading to smarter waste future in the Czech Republic.

Initial Operating Experience with the New Polish Waste-to-Energy Plants
© TK Verlag - Fachverlag für Kreislaufwirtschaft (9/2016)
Waste-to-Energy plants are an integral part of modern municipal Waste Management Systems. Today recycling and energy recovery from waste are the only methods of dealing with municipal waste. This is demonstrated by Waste Management Systems in countries such as Germany, Sweden, the Netherlands, Belgium, Denmark and Austria, where the municipal waste management is limited solely to recycling and energy recovery from waste. The currently discussed concept of the latest circular economy package can hardly change anything in this matter. Poland, as one of the leaders among the new EU member states (since 2004), has still a lot to do within the scope of recycling and waste-to-energy.

Overview of the Waste Management Situation and Planning in Greece
© TK Verlag - Fachverlag für Kreislaufwirtschaft (9/2016)
Waste management has been recognized as one of the most pressing problems in Greece suffering of a low level of organization and relying predominantly on semi-controlled landfills until the end of the previous century [9]. Nevertheless improvements have been made during the last twenty years making the solid waste management in Greece a well-structured, organized and environmentally responsible activity with specific goals, mostly in the urban areas. However, there is a big need of changing the waste Management model. The development of efficient use of resources is the mean of realizing this vision. The transformation of the economy towards a resource-efficient direction will lead to increased competitiveness and new sources of growth and jobs through cost reduction through improved efficiency, commercialization of innovations and better management of resources throughout the duration of cycle life.

Plastics Recycling and Energy Recovery Activities in Poland – Current Status and Development Prospects –
© TK Verlag - Fachverlag für Kreislaufwirtschaft (9/2016)
The waste disposal system in Poland is one of the least advanced in Europe. Despite great efforts over the last 20 years municipal waste landfilling has only reduced from 95 percent in 1991 to 73 percent in 2010. This still means that millions of tonnes of post-consumer waste continue to be landfilled.

New Waste-to-Energy Facility Energy Works Hull, United Kingdom
© TK Verlag - Fachverlag für Kreislaufwirtschaft (9/2016)
Energy Works Hull (the Project) is a milestone project for the UK’s waste and renewable energy sector. It will be one of the largest gasification facilities receiving MSW in the UK, indeed in Europe. It is one of the first advanced conversion technology Projects to receive its renewable electricity subsidies through a Contract for Difference, the mechanism by which the UK Government determined to move from Renewable Obligation Certificates following its Electricity Market Reform process. It also plays a significant part of the urban regeneration of the City of Hull. The level of community engagement and benefit has resulted in the project receiving a GBP19.9M grant from the European Union’s Regional Development Fund.

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