A Common Framework for Assessing Life Cycle Impacts of Food Waste Prevention, Valorisation & Treatment
© Lehrstuhl für Abfallverwertungstechnik und Abfallwirtschaft der Montanuniversität Leoben (11/2016)
The European Waste Framework Directive 2008/98 EC mandates that member states should take measures to encourage waste prevention and management options which deliver the best overall environmental outcome from a life cycle perspective, even if these differ from the waste hierarchy. Life cycle assessment (LCA) is a well-established tool to compare and evaluate such environmental life cycle impacts of food (waste) systems. However, as a tool, LCA leaves a lot of freedom to the assessor to determine key aspects. Notable aspects can be found mainly as part of the goals and scope definition, such as the functional unit, the system boundaries or the handling of multiple outputs. This influences the outcome of the assessments.

A SWOT Analysis for Municipal Waste Management in Turkey and the Challenges in the Course of Access to EU
© Lehrstuhl für Abfallverwertungstechnik und Abfallwirtschaft der Montanuniversität Leoben (11/2016)
Just after the release of Waste Management Action Plan for 2008-2012 period in Turkey, TR - EU negotiations in environment chapter have opened. In the following period, many revisions in present TR regulations have completed and new directives and legislations were put into force on waste management, mostly in accordance with EU acquisitions. While the changes in the regulations in MSW management are realized, some factors are influencing and sometimes blocking their implementation. One of the major reasons is limited number of qualified stuff in regional units of the Ministry of Environment and Urbanization. The main challenge for the municipalities is to select and locate a waste management facility with proper combination of technologies while having very limited contact with experts at universities. In addition, neither the ministry nor the municipalities could overcome the public reactions to waste Management facilities. Another significant shortcoming is the incomplete adaption of EU legislation. Implementation of new legislation is possible by immediate developing of national, regional and local waste management plans and supply of satisfactory number of stuff with required expertise.

Measures to Implement an Advanced Waste Management System in the Czech Republic
© TK Verlag - Fachverlag für Kreislaufwirtschaft (9/2016)
The Czech Republic is now preparing the new complete revision of waste law. The transformation of the waste management into the circular economy started through the legislative process in June 2016. Waste management plan of the Czech Republic for 2015 to 2024 clearly specifies waste strategy and priorities for the country. Thus, in the Act on waste the ban on landfilling of recyclable and recoverable waste in 2024, obligatory separate collection of main municipal waste streams including biowaste since 2015 and currently proposed increase of waste landfilling tax with strict recycling targets already in 2018 are only the first milestones leading to smarter waste future in the Czech Republic.

The Market for Mechanical Biological Waste Treatment Plants in Europe
© TK Verlag - Fachverlag für Kreislaufwirtschaft (9/2016)
Both the number and capacities of mechanical biological treatment plants (MBT plants) have increased significantly in the past years. In late 2015, about 490 MBT plants were active in Europe, reaching a disposal capacity of circa 47 million annual tons. However, despite its steady growth, the MBT market showed volatility. The market development peaked in 2005/2006, with the commissioning of about 80 plants with a capacity of circa 9 million annual tons. In 2015, about 13 new facilities with a capacity of around 2.2 million annual tons went online. The MBT market has also shifted geographically, because the European countries have started implementing the EU Landfill Directive in different years. After MBT plants had mainly been constructed in Southern Europe, Germany and Austria before 2006, investments shifted towards the UK and more recently, towards Eastern Europe. In the coming years, an ambivalent development is expected. Whereas further MBT plants will be constructed in countries still sending large shares of their MSW to landfills, MBT technology will experience increasing pressure in the countries with low landfilling shares.

State of Municipal Waste Management in EU Member States Depending on the Standard of Living
© TK Verlag - Fachverlag für Kreislaufwirtschaft (12/2015)
The Waste Framework Directive of the European Union (EU) from 2008 is the legal framework for waste legislation of the Member States. Article 4 of the Framework sets a five-step hierarchy with regards to the handling of waste in the order of prevention, preparing for reuse, recycling (recycling including reprocessing of organic substances), other kinds of utilization (e.g. thermal) and disposal.

The Roadmap of Turkey on Waste Management
© TK Verlag - Fachverlag für Kreislaufwirtschaft (12/2015)
Industrial and technological developments have increased rapidly throughout the world including Turkey. Furthermore, the population of Turkey is also increasing and the ever-increasing consumption creates larger amounts of waste and adversely affects the environment and human health.

Mechanical-biological Stabilization Plant in Trier – Biological Drying and Recovery of Recyclable Materials –
© TK Verlag - Fachverlag für Kreislaufwirtschaft (12/2015)
In spite of the fact that the EU has set up a waste hierarchy and issued key pieces of waste management directives, and ratified by all EU member states, compliance with diversion targets away from landfilling are still considered too ambitious and are far out of the reach of many EU countries. This is especially true for the southern European and Eastern European Member States, who are looking for viable economic and robust technologies that be rapidly implemented assisting them to fulfil EU targets within the desired timeframes.

Current Developments in European Waste-to-Energy
© TK Verlag - Fachverlag für Kreislaufwirtschaft (12/2015)
Europe’s future Circular Economy package should be ambitious in minimising landfilling of recyclable and recoverable waste, in order to maximise the use of waste as a resource. It should take a holistic approach that considers supply of raw materials as well as supply of secure and sustainable energy, which is an important part of the European Energy Union. This approach would be in line with Better Regulation and would benefit the environment, jobs and growth in Europe.

Waste to Energy: A Sustainable Energy Strategy
© Eigenbeiträge der Autoren (9/2015)
In February 2015 the European Commission presented the highly anticipated Energy Union Package and by the end of 2015 a “more ambitious” Circular Economy proposal is to be introduced.

Development of waste- and material flow management taking the Hanover region as an example
© Wasteconsult international (5/2015)
The region of Hanover can look back on years of experience regarding the recovery of waste and recyclable materials. In this period of time numerous waste processing plants with a highly innovative character have been built which were widely recognized also beyond the region. The material flow management (MFM) of the municipal waste Management companies thus requires the application of appropriate, future-oriented strategies. The companies are challenged on each level and in all their service areas, with the aim of a systematic further development of the service task entrusted to the municipal waste disposal companies. The Waste Disposal Association for the region of Hanover, abbreviated aha in German, has created the necessary prerequisites and continuously improves them.

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