Mechanical-Biological Treatment Plant in Hanover, Germany – Experience in Mechanical Processing, Anaerobic Digestion and Refuse Derived Fuel Quality –
© TK Verlag - Fachverlag für Kreislaufwirtschaft (12/2015)
The Hanover mechanical-biological treatment (MBT) plant can look back on 15 years of operator´s experience. The mechanical treatment facility has been working largely without any issues due to the simple technique and the comfortable redundancy and design. The biological treatment facility faces growing damage due to ageing of materials, which is accelerated by microbiological attack, and corrosive and abrasive ingredients in the residual waste. Comprehensive maintenance, renovation and replacement measures are planned.

Application of Anaerobic Digestion for the Treatment of Municipal Solid Waste in Several Projects
© TK Verlag - Fachverlag für Kreislaufwirtschaft (11/2014)
In a circular economy there can be no place for waste announced EU Environmental Commissioneer Janez Potocnik in his opening speech for the green week in June 2014 in Brussels. This year´s topic Circular Economy – saving resources, creating jobs showed a clear sign and dedicated this years congress in the opening speech to the circular and resource economy and therewith to the waste management economy. In the resolutions taken at environmental summit conferences in the last 20 years priority focus was always given to closed circular economy processes to save natural resources and to reduce CO2 emissions, which have their origin in the use of fossile fuels. This aspect has been taken over by the European Union long time ago and the EU directive 1999/31/EC where article 5 considers the limitation of organic materials to be landfilled.

Ecoefficiency Comparison of the Anaerobic Digestion, Composting and Incineration of Bio-Waste
© TK Verlag - Fachverlag für Kreislaufwirtschaft (11/2014)
Whereas for a long time, the waste industry and waste management interest was focussed on safe and environmentally compatible disposal of unavoidable and recyclable waste, today the priority is renewable energy generation, reduction of greenhouse gas emissions and improving recycling management of recoverable materials. In this context, this paper deals specifically with bio-waste. Bio-waste produced in Germany is divided into the following most important partial flows: • Bio-waste and green waste (garden cuttings, etc.) from municipal collection • Landscape maintenance materials • Other organic waste, especially food waste from industry and commerce

bifa Text No. 64: Hygienically optimised collection of biowastes with ecovio biowaste bags
© bifa Umweltinstitut GmbH (7/2014)
In the bifa Text No 64, the collection of biowaste without biowaste bags was compared to collection in paper bags, PE bags and biowaste bags made of the compostable plastic ecovio.

Digestate and Compost qualities focus on nitrogen and organic matter respective brings to crops and to cultivated soils
© European Compost Network ECN e.V. (6/2014)
CIRSEE team contributes for Suez Environnement and in collaboration with different public and private partners to the collaborative R&D program DIVA that is partially financed by ANR and that is dedicated to the characterization and agricultural recovery of different digestates produced in France. CIRSEE participates to the task “agronomic characterization” that is led by INRA and realizes different laboratory and “on land” tests in order to precise and compare the agronomic value of different organic products : raw digestates, composted digestates as Methacompost or simple composts produced from domestic or agricultural waste.

Organic matter transformation drives the fate of organic micropollutants during anaerobic digestion and composting of sludge
© European Compost Network ECN e.V. (6/2014)
In France, sewage sludge is very often recycled on cropped soils as fertilizer substitute. To avoid impacts related to organic micropollutant input in soil, it is necessary to ensure their dissipation from the sludge during the stabilization processes like anaerobic digestion and composting. The behaviour of organic micropollutants (13 polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, nonylphenols, 2 antibiotics (sulfamethoxazole and ciprofloxacin), 1 hormone (β-estradiol) and 1 anti-inflammatory drug (ibuprofen)) was experimentally studied during lab-scale anaerobic digestion followed by composting. At the same time, the fate of organic matter was studied during the treatments. To go further on the comprehension of organic micropollutants dissipation mechanisms, the organic matter was chemically fractionated according to its accessibility.

A new organic matter fractionation methodology applied on a large panel of organic wastes: accessibility characterization for bioaccessibility prediction and process modelling improvement
© European Compost Network ECN e.V. (6/2014)
The huge amount of organic wastes can be treated through biological processes such as anaerobic digestion or composting for their energetic and agricultural valorization. In order to predict the fate of the organic matter in these processes, knowledge on biodegradability and bioaccessibility is crucial. However, in the literature there is a lack of protocol to assess organic matter bioaccessibility. Recently, a methodology based on chemical sequential extractions combined with fluorescence spectroscopy has been developed for sewage sludge. A successful correlation with bioaccessibility was shown. However, this technique was based on alkaline extractions which target proteins and humic acids and was not sufficient for the carbohydrates or lignocellulosic substrates characterization.

Quality of liquid digestate as fertilizer – challenges for analytical procedures and regulations
© European Compost Network ECN e.V. (6/2014)
During anaerobic digestion (AD), methane and CO2 are released during decomposition of organic matter. Consequently, the concentration of heavy metals and other possible harmful substances will increase on dry matter basis (DM). The concentrations of plant nutrients in the digestate will also increase. The quality of the feedstock is therefore important.

Digestates origin and post-treatment influence their biological stability, potential nitrogen availability for plants and reactive nitrogen gas emissions
© European Compost Network ECN e.V. (6/2014)
The objective was to evaluate how digested wastes and post-digestion process determine the interest of digestates as organic amendments, source of nitrogen for plants and their potential environmental impacts through NH3 and N2O emissions. Digestates of different origins were sampled at various process steps: raw effluent, solid and liquid phases from phase separation, composted or dried solid phases and concentrates from membrane operation. All experiments were done in laboratory controlled conditions: potential nitrogen availability and organic matter stability during incubation of soil-digestate mixtures, NH3 emission using a modified wind-tunnel method and N2O emission using soil-digestate incubation during three months.

Greenhouse gases from composting and anaerobic digestion of biowaste in Germany
© European Compost Network ECN e.V. (6/2014)
Greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions from 12 to 120 kg CO2äq/Mg from composting and anaerobic digestion of biowaste are important for environmental impacts and results in Life Cycle Assessment (LCA). Poor operation can cause even higher emissions up to 400 kg CO2äq/Mg. The amount of CH4 and primary N2O differ in a range of factor 10 between different plants and is a result of variation in substrate (feedstock) and basic process parameters like: porosity, density, temperature, moisture, C:N ratio, O2 and pH-value.

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