Resource Recovery from Waste Using the Input Flexibility of Waste Gasification Technology
© TK Verlag - Fachverlag für Kreislaufwirtschaft (9/2016)
Nowadays, gasification of waste or biomass is becoming the great interest all over the world. Especially, gasification of municipal solid waste (MSW) has been well-researched in Japan. The development of MSW gasification technology was started in the 1970s in Japan because of oil crisis. Several technologies have been researched and developed. The Direct Melting System (DMS), which is the gasification and melting technology developed by Nippon Steel & Sumikin Engineering Co., Ltd., is one of the developed waste gasification technologies in this era. This technology was introduced for commercial use in Kamaishi City, Japan in 1979. As well as this waste technology, other gasification technologies have been developed for commercial use and installed.

Overview of the Pyrolysis and Gasification Processes for Thermal Disposal of Waste
© TK Verlag - Fachverlag für Kreislaufwirtschaft (9/2016)
Thermal treatment of waste started in the 1870s in England with the first waste incineration plants and this technology was in short time adopted by many industrialised countries. Starting in the late 1970s waste incineration was blamed for emission of toxic compounds, in particular of dioxins, and public pressure initiated the decree of more and more stringent air emission standards in all countries which, again, induced significant improvement of the environmental performance of waste incineration.

Initial Operating Experience with the New Polish Waste-to-Energy Plants
© TK Verlag - Fachverlag für Kreislaufwirtschaft (9/2016)
Waste-to-Energy plants are an integral part of modern municipal Waste Management Systems. Today recycling and energy recovery from waste are the only methods of dealing with municipal waste. This is demonstrated by Waste Management Systems in countries such as Germany, Sweden, the Netherlands, Belgium, Denmark and Austria, where the municipal waste management is limited solely to recycling and energy recovery from waste. The currently discussed concept of the latest circular economy package can hardly change anything in this matter. Poland, as one of the leaders among the new EU member states (since 2004), has still a lot to do within the scope of recycling and waste-to-energy.

Complex Approach towards the Assessment of Waste-to-Energy Plants’ Future Potential
© TK Verlag - Fachverlag für Kreislaufwirtschaft (9/2016)
There is a fierce debate ongoing about future recycling targets for municipal solid waste (MSW) at the European level. The old linear concept of waste management is being changed into a circular economy. Since the separation yield and post-recycling MSW (later on residual solid waste, RSW) production have an opposite relationship, assuming the constant production of particular components (paper, plastics etc.), lower RSW rates are also expected. This is having a negative effect on Waste-to-energy (WtE); especially in terms of its future optimum capacity in particular countries.

Wrong Tracks in Waste Management
© TK Verlag - Fachverlag für Kreislaufwirtschaft (9/2016)
Waste Management is ubiquitous in our everyday life. Economic prosperity and the abundance of materialistic goods imply the generation of waste. In parallel the public awareness for environmentally sound solutions in the field of waste management is raising. This context imposes challenging conditions for political leaders. Often politicians are confronted to take decisions about concepts or investments in waste management without independent expertise. They are approached by vendors of waste treatment technologies or concepts, claiming high environmental and energetic performance, combined with profitable cost – benefit rates.

Innovative Application Methods of Slags from High-Temperature-Gasifying-and-Direct-Melting System
© TK Verlag - Fachverlag für Kreislaufwirtschaft (9/2016)
JFE High-Temperature Gasifying and Direct Melting Furnace System (hereinafter Gasifying and Melting System) was developed to treat any kind of wastes and to contribute to energy and material recovery. Gasifying and Melting System was developed by integrating company’s original technologies for the iron-making blast furnace and fluidized bed for incineration plants, which the company cultivated over many years. The company’s advanced technologies in these two different fields were combined and integrated into the unique Gasifying and Melting System. This system is a proven technology that realizes high performance

Significance of and Challenges for Flue Gas Treatment Systems in Waste Incineration
© TK Verlag - Fachverlag für Kreislaufwirtschaft (9/2016)
Flue gas cleaning downstream of waste incineration plants had its origins in the increased construction and deployment of such plants to counter rising air pollution in the nineteen-sixties. Back then, the ever-growing burden on the environment caused lawmakers to start enacting emission limits for air pollution control. An unceasing series of environmental scandals and increasingly better analytical methods and measuring instrumentation led to a constant reduction of the emission limits and, consequently, to ongoing adjustment and further development of the necessary process stages in flue gas cleaning. As a result, today minimum emissions can be reached even under the challenging condition of deployment of a very inhomogeneous fuel (waste) and, hence, waste incineration today is no longer a key contributor to air pollution. Today, the need for flue gas cleaning is not called into doubt anymore and has long become a matter of course in the industry and in society at large. Apart from ensuring efficient elimination of noxious gases, the focus of today’s further developments is on issues such as energy efficiency, minimization of input materials and recovery and recycling of by-products from flue gas cleaning as valuable raw materials. These issues are also deemed to be key challenges, especially when it comes to selecting sites for new plants in such a manner that potential synergies can be exploited. Such aspects will also have to be considered in the plans for the predicted mega-cities of the future.

Application of Modified NiCrMo Alloy Systems for Boiler Tube Surface Protection in Waste-to-Energy Environments
© TK Verlag - Fachverlag für Kreislaufwirtschaft (9/2016)
Internationally, Waste to Energy and Incineration markets continue to grow in capacity as fossil fueled facilities decline and nuclear generation is curtailed. With this comes a greater need to burn more corrosive materials combust at higher temperatures and extract more energy. The reliability burden that this places on operators of plants is re-opening opportunities for thermal spray solutions as a cost effective solution for boiler tube protection. Where maintenance costs, opportunity costs and access restrictions may preclude alternative in-situ technologies, thermal spray technology may fill a gap in providing new reliable and flexible process and materials technologies for both mid- and long-term protection of water wall and superheater tubes. While historically thermal spray coating solutions have had a spotty record in waste to energy environments, advances in both process and materials technology specifically for WTE environments is such that coating performance now approaches the performance of high alloy wrought materials. This is verified through accurate laboratory modeling and scale tests and trials conducted by OEM’s and plants.

The Added Value of the Balance Method for Waste-to-Energy Operators and National Authorities
© TK Verlag - Fachverlag für Kreislaufwirtschaft (9/2016)
Different directives of the European Union may require operators of Waste to Energy WTE plants to monitor the composition of their waste feed with respect to the Content of biomass and fossil organic matter. The mass fractions of both materials are not only of relevance for the amount of fossil and thus climate relevant CO2 emissions of the plant, but also for the ratio of renewable energy generated, as biomass in wastes is considered as renewable energy source.

Development of Waste Management in the Arab Region
© TK Verlag - Fachverlag für Kreislaufwirtschaft (9/2016)
The Department of Waste Management and Material Flow of the University of Rostock has been active in Arab countries for over 20 years, and has initiated, carried out and scientifically supervised numerous projects. Waste management and material flow is an important theme in the field of German development cooperation in the MENA regions and has gained in significance in recent years.

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