Effect of Recycling Bin and Recycling Rates on the Composition of Residual Waste
© Wasteconsult international (5/2015)
The new German Waste Management Act (KrWG) defined a new five-step waste hierarchy (paragraph 6) that lays out the fundamental sequence from waste prevention, reuse, recycling, other recovery operations (including energy recovery) to disposal. Moreover, paragraph 14 stipulates that at least 65 % of municipal solid waste and at least 70 % of construction and demolition waste should be recycled by 2020. Biowaste, paper, metal, plastic and glass waste are to be collected separately under the provisions of paragraph 11 I and paragraph 14 I of the Act from 1 January 2015 at the latest. These rules aim to unlock the high resource potential of wastes with intrinsic value even more efficiently.

Recovery of value from MSW and SSO by press Extrusion and waste cleaning
© Wasteconsult international (5/2015)
Municipal solid waste (MSW) or source separated organics contain a large amount of energy and can be treated into sellable products. Through press extrusion waste is physically separated into two fundamental fractions, a biogenic wet fraction with hardly any non-organics and a solid dry fraction with almost total absence of organic biodegradable substances. This wet biogenic fraction can be further cleaned and subsequently used in anaerobic digestion plants to produce fertilizer, heat & electricity and gas. Through an additional separation process the dry non-organic fraction is prepared into RDF and recyclables. Within the SEPARATE project several waste streams and the two outgoing fractions are tested with a long-term test in Germany and several shortterm tests in different European countries.

The dry anaerobic DRANCO technology applied to the organic fraction of MSW
© Wasteconsult international (5/2015)
The DRANCO technology was developed in the eighties as one of the very first anaerobic digestion technologies for municipal solid waste (MSW). A first demonstration plant was erected in 1984 in Ghent, Belgium. At present about thirty DRANCO installations are constructed in about fifteen different countries. This paper describes these DRANCO installations treating the organic fraction of MSW, integrated in a mechanicalbiological treatment plant (MBT). It does not describe DRANCO installations dealing with source separated biowaste.

Waste2Go – Innovative MSW-Recycling for Production of Chemical Substances
© Lehrstuhl für Abfallverwertungstechnik und Abfallwirtschaft der Montanuniversität Leoben (11/2014)
About 180 million tons of residual waste is generated each year through households in the European Member States (EU28), which means every citizen produces more than one kilogram per day. Along with the industry the residual waste adds up to circa 2.5 billion tons. Large proportions of municipal solid waste (MSW) are still not recycled in an adequate manner because of the heterogeneity of the unsorted waste.

Microwave-Assisted Organsolv-Pretreatment of Biological Residues
© Lehrstuhl für Abfallverwertungstechnik und Abfallwirtschaft der Montanuniversität Leoben (11/2014)
Due to the scarcity of arable land and the competition with food production, lignocellulosic residues, such as straw come into the focus of the considerations of biofuel production. Lignocellulosic residues are not suitable for direct use in conversion processes, such as bioethanol production. The reason is their plant physiological composition.

Tailings of Mining and Processing as Alternative Raw Material Repository
© Lehrstuhl für Abfallverwertungstechnik und Abfallwirtschaft der Montanuniversität Leoben (11/2014)
European political initiatives like for example Horizon 2020, the European Innovation Partnership (EIP) on raw materials, the Knowledge and Innovation Community (KIC) for raw materials, and the European Technology Platform on Sustainable Mineral Resources (ETP SMR) show the vital importance of a secure raw material supply to our industry.

Extracellular Electron Shuttles for the Anaerobic Oxidation of Tar Oil Contaminants
© Lehrstuhl für Abfallverwertungstechnik und Abfallwirtschaft der Montanuniversität Leoben (11/2014)
Coal tar, as a by-product from coal gasifi cation in municipal or manufactured gas plants (MGP), has been used for numerous industrial purposes including wood impregnation and as a raw material for ointments. Initially valued for its antibiotic properties, the constituents of coal tar constituents, when released into the environment, now pose considerable threats to soil and groundwater quality in many industrialized countries.

Lodgment of Polluted Sludge in Geosynthetical Tubes
© Lehrstuhl für Abfallverwertungstechnik und Abfallwirtschaft der Montanuniversität Leoben (11/2014)
Sludge often arise as unintentional spin-off product in industrial processes. With regards to Transport (e.g. thixotropy, high water content) and further recycling (especially when contaminated) sludge is very inconvenient. However, with improved technical features sludge material might become usable as construction material for example in dams and embankments.

Recycling of REE-Containing Polishing Sludge
© Lehrstuhl für Abfallverwertungstechnik und Abfallwirtschaft der Montanuniversität Leoben (11/2014)
Polishing agents containing high amounts of cerium oxides and lanthanum oxides are used during the production process of Swarovski Crystal items, since polishing of the cut and grind-ed surfaces is the fi nal step required to achieve the characteristic radiance and brilliance. Currently, the amount of these REE oxides used annually is up to 300 tons. Before the start of this recycling Project in 2011, the used REE oxides were deposited alongside other production slurries, since their price on the world market was relatively low and recycling was not feasible for various reasons.

Recovery of Metals from Sewage Sludges and Incineration Ashes by Means of Hyperaccumulating Plants
© Lehrstuhl für Abfallverwertungstechnik und Abfallwirtschaft der Montanuniversität Leoben (11/2014)
Sewage sludges as well as ashes from waste incineration plants are known accumulation sinks of many elements that are either important nutrients for biological organisms (phosphorus, potassium, magnesium, etc.) or valuable metals when considered on their own in pure form (nickel, chrome, zinc, etc.); they are also serious pollutants when they occur in wild mixtures at localized anthropogenic end-of-stream points.

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