Lessons Learned on the Way to Realize and Operate MBT Plants
© Lehrstuhl für Abfallverwertungstechnik und Abfallwirtschaft der Montanuniversität Leoben (11/2016)
Under aspects of climate protection the fermentation process in AD-sections of an MBT should be favoured for the separated organic (wet) fraction. Best performing plants are not only separating some recyclables – in addition to separate collection systems – and producing electricity form the biogas but are also utilizing the heat produced in water cooling circuits and exhaust gas heat. MBT-plants are regarded as a suitable solution to reduce methane-emissions from landfills, if such plants are constructed and operated well and using state-of-the-art emission reduction equipment.

Material vs. Energy Recovery – An Assessment Using Computational Tools NERUDA and JUSTINE
© Lehrstuhl für Abfallverwertungstechnik und Abfallwirtschaft der Montanuniversität Leoben (11/2016)
The paper describes a continuing work on a unique approach of a Waste-to-Energy (WtE) Project assessment and related risk analysing. It is based on long time developed computational tools NERUDA and JUSTINE which support decision making in the field of waste Management.

Wrong Tracks in Waste Management
© TK Verlag - Fachverlag für Kreislaufwirtschaft (9/2016)
Waste Management is ubiquitous in our everyday life. Economic prosperity and the abundance of materialistic goods imply the generation of waste. In parallel the public awareness for environmentally sound solutions in the field of waste management is raising. This context imposes challenging conditions for political leaders. Often politicians are confronted to take decisions about concepts or investments in waste management without independent expertise. They are approached by vendors of waste treatment technologies or concepts, claiming high environmental and energetic performance, combined with profitable cost – benefit rates.

The Market for Mechanical Biological Waste Treatment Plants in Europe
© TK Verlag - Fachverlag für Kreislaufwirtschaft (9/2016)
Both the number and capacities of mechanical biological treatment plants (MBT plants) have increased significantly in the past years. In late 2015, about 490 MBT plants were active in Europe, reaching a disposal capacity of circa 47 million annual tons. However, despite its steady growth, the MBT market showed volatility. The market development peaked in 2005/2006, with the commissioning of about 80 plants with a capacity of circa 9 million annual tons. In 2015, about 13 new facilities with a capacity of around 2.2 million annual tons went online. The MBT market has also shifted geographically, because the European countries have started implementing the EU Landfill Directive in different years. After MBT plants had mainly been constructed in Southern Europe, Germany and Austria before 2006, investments shifted towards the UK and more recently, towards Eastern Europe. In the coming years, an ambivalent development is expected. Whereas further MBT plants will be constructed in countries still sending large shares of their MSW to landfills, MBT technology will experience increasing pressure in the countries with low landfilling shares.

Development of Waste Management in the Arab Region
© TK Verlag - Fachverlag für Kreislaufwirtschaft (9/2016)
The Department of Waste Management and Material Flow of the University of Rostock has been active in Arab countries for over 20 years, and has initiated, carried out and scientifically supervised numerous projects. Waste management and material flow is an important theme in the field of German development cooperation in the MENA regions and has gained in significance in recent years.

Mechanical-Biological Treatment Plant in Hanover, Germany – Experience in Mechanical Processing, Anaerobic Digestion and Refuse Derived Fuel Quality –
© TK Verlag - Fachverlag für Kreislaufwirtschaft (12/2015)
The Hanover mechanical-biological treatment (MBT) plant can look back on 15 years of operator´s experience. The mechanical treatment facility has been working largely without any issues due to the simple technique and the comfortable redundancy and design. The biological treatment facility faces growing damage due to ageing of materials, which is accelerated by microbiological attack, and corrosive and abrasive ingredients in the residual waste. Comprehensive maintenance, renovation and replacement measures are planned.

Mechanical-biological Stabilization Plant in Trier – Biological Drying and Recovery of Recyclable Materials –
© TK Verlag - Fachverlag für Kreislaufwirtschaft (12/2015)
In spite of the fact that the EU has set up a waste hierarchy and issued key pieces of waste management directives, and ratified by all EU member states, compliance with diversion targets away from landfilling are still considered too ambitious and are far out of the reach of many EU countries. This is especially true for the southern European and Eastern European Member States, who are looking for viable economic and robust technologies that be rapidly implemented assisting them to fulfil EU targets within the desired timeframes.

Change of Mechanical-Biological Waste Treatment in Austria
© TK Verlag - Fachverlag für Kreislaufwirtschaft (12/2015)
The development of mechanical-biological waste treatment in Austria is inextricably linked to the development of the Austrian landfill law. Based on the provisions of the Austrian Landfill Ordinance 1996, only pre-treated, poor reactive waste is allowed to be deposited in Austria since 1 January 2004.

Use of Solid Recovered Fuels in the Cement Industry
© TK Verlag - Fachverlag für Kreislaufwirtschaft (11/2014)
The European Union Directive 2000/76/EC on the Incineration of Waste limits emissions to air, only, however, so far there are still no limits considering the levels of pollutants in the fuels, residues or products themselves when waste fuels are burnt in co-incineration plants. To overcome this shortage, the Guideline for Waste Fuels and the Waste Incineration Directive, which define quality criteria for waste fuels burnt in co-incineration plants, have been issued in Austria. According to this legal framework, waste fuels are waste that is used entirely or to a relevant extent for the purpose of energy generation and which satisfies the quality criteria laid down in the Waste Incineration Directive.

Best Available Techniques (BAT) for Mechanical-Biological Waste Treatment Plants
© TK Verlag - Fachverlag für Kreislaufwirtschaft (11/2014)
The European BREF documents (Best Available Technique Reference Documents) describe the Best Available Techniques (BAT) for low-emission operation of industrial plants which also include waste treatment plants. The definition of the best available techniques in terms of the BREFs is similar to that of the German term state of the art. The legal basis is the Industrial Emissions Directive 2010/75/EU (IED Directive) which replaced the Integrated Pollution Prevention and Control Directive of 15th January 2008 (IPPC Directive). With the adoption of the IED Directive, the BREF Documents have been gaining increased legal weight. They must be observed in setting permit conditions and constitute a major element of the permitting process.

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