Fate of soil-applied olive mill wastewater and potential phytotoxicity assessed by two bioassay methods
© European Compost Network ECN e.V. (6/2012)
Controlled land spreading of untreated olive mill wastewater (OMW) has been widely practiced as a mean of their disposal and is now permitted by law in several countries. In this respect, OMW is considered as a natural fertilizer, which, at proper application rates, is not harmful to crops and can be disposed of without causing environmental damage. Still, the inherent phytotoxicity of OMW is of major concern and requires careful management. Multiple studies based their phytotoxicity assessments on soil extracts, while it is questionable whether extract-based bioassays reflect reliably the actual phytotoxicity of the soil in situ. Further authors: L. Saadi - Agricultural Research Organization, Newe Ya'ar Research Center, Ramat-Yishay, Israel Sh. Berkovich - Agricultural Research Organization, Newe Ya'ar Research Center, Ramat-Yishay, Israel A. Hanan - Agricultural Research Organization, Newe Ya'ar Research Center, Ramat-Yishay, Israel

Sustainable MBR Application by Mechanical Membrane Cleaning
© DIV Deutscher Industrieverlag GmbH (9/2011)
A non-chemical, mechanical cleaning process has been developed, in which granulates (particles) are added to the activated sludge in order to effect a continuous abrasion of the fouling layer.

Toray Membrane Europe AG
© DIV Deutscher Industrieverlag GmbH (9/2011)
Successfully Tested the Process Combination of Ultrafiltration and Powdered Activated Carbon for Advanced Wastewater Treatment in Lab Scale

Interview: Membrane technology under discussion
© DIV Deutscher Industrieverlag GmbH (9/2011)
The Institutes for Environmental Engineering (ISA) and for Chemical Process Engineering (AVT) of RWTH Aachen University together with the International Water Association (IWA) this year arrange the 6th IWA Specialist Conference on Membrane Technology for Water & Wastewater Treatment, an international forum for experts with about 140 lectures on the current status of research and development in membrane technology, Prof. Dr. Johannes Pinnekamp, director of the ISA, and Christine Ziegler of gwf-Wasser|Abwasser talked about the orientation and significance of the event and the major applications of membrane technology in the field of water and wastewater treatment.

Tertiary Filtration with Ultrafiltration Membranes in Municipal Wastewater Treatment Plants - Engineering challenges for the implementation in existing wastewater treatment plant
© DIV Deutscher Industrieverlag GmbH (9/2011)
During the operation of tertiary filtration stages in a dead-end-mode, retentate concentrate and rinsing water from membrane cleaning accrue naturally. Work on process solutions for these process waters with no additional particle loads for the tertiary membrane fi ltration stage and no further hydraulic loads is obviously necessary. A process engineering concept for the treatment of retentate volume fl ows by a combination of fl otation technology, secondary fi ltration and centrifuge technology allows for a hydraulic isolation of the tertiary membrane fi ltration stage from the biological wastewater treatment.

Fate of Pharmaceuticals during Wastewater Treatment by a Membrane Bioreactor
© DIV Deutscher Industrieverlag GmbH (9/2011)
This study provides a comprehensive insight into the levels and fate of nine commonly used pharmaceuticals (amitriptyline, atenolol, gemfi brozil, ibuprofen, ketoprofen, metformin, naproxen, paracetamol and simvastatin) through a full-scale membrane bioreactor (MBR) in New South Wales, Australia. Seven out of the nine studied pharmaceuticals were detected in the raw sewage with average concentrations in the range of 1.29– 33.3 μg.L–1, while gemfi brozil and simvastatin were below the analytical detection limit (1 ng.L–1). The MBR consistently achieved high removal effi ciencies of the detected pharmaceuticals, in the range of 77.2–99.9 %. A mass-balance showed that sorption to biomass was the dominant removal mechanism for amitriptyline while biodegradation/ transformation was responsible for removing all other pharmaceuticals. This study revealed that log D (Log Kow corrected for ionisation at the ambient pH) provides an effective estimation of the sorption capacity of these pharmaceuticals to biomass.

Filterability and Floc size in Membrane Bioreactors: European Scale Assessment
© DIV Deutscher Industrieverlag GmbH (9/2011)
Filterability is a recognized parameter to evaluate membrane bioreactor (MBR) sludge quality. A link was established between fi lterability and submicron particles, i.e. sludge with worse fi lterability has a higher amount of submicron particles. In this research, the relation between fi lterability and suspended particles, measured through particle counting in the range 2–100 μm, was investigated to evaluate whether suspended material can be a source of submicron particles, causing the aforementioned fi lterability decrease. The research was performed at 4 pilot-scale MBRs, complementing previous research performed at 4 full-scale MBRs. Results showed that MBR activated sludge fi lterability improves with increasing sludge fl oc size, supporting the initial hypothesis. Nevertheless, in one single MBR installation varitions in the membrane tank floc size are likely to be limited.

Evaluation of Carbonaceous Organic Matter and Nitrogen Removal of Wastewater in Membrane Bioreactor
© DIV Deutscher Industrieverlag GmbH (9/2011)
This study aimed to evaluate the carbonaceous organic matter and nitrogen removal as well as the determination of critical fl ux in membrane bioreactor (MBR), with pre-anoxic zone, treating industrial wastewater of amino acids production. The reactor was operated under organic loading rate of 1.91 kg DQO/m3 · day and 0.18 kg NTK/m3 · day, the recirculation from aerobic reactor to anoxic reactor was 4 times the infl uent fl ow rate. The system showed an average removal of COD, TKN and TN of 97 %, 98 % and 92 %, respectively. The ultrafi ltration system was tested at various fl uxes between 25 and 37 L/m2·h, to determine the critical fl ux of 28 L/m2·h operating at 11.4 g/L of TSS and 35 days of sludge retention time. The results showed the technical feasibility of using MBR to remove organic matter from industrial wastewater of amino acids production.

Energy Efficient Aeration in a Single Low Pressure Hollow Sheet Membrane Filtration Module
© DIV Deutscher Industrieverlag GmbH (9/2011)
The main drawback of membrane bioreactors (MBR) systems is the fouling of the membrane, which is decreased and/or prevented through gas sparging. However, this practice is based on rules of thumb or trialand- error approaches which are tedious, very time-consuming, do not necessarily provide optimal fouling control and they are not energy effi cient. Therefore, dedicated experiments are needed to fully understand the hydrodynamics of it. A hollow sheet (HS) MBR was studied. Experimental velocity measurements were made using micro-propellers and compared to CFD results. A good agreement between experimental measurements and CFD results was found (error less than 11 % on average). Due to the fact that the shear stress measurements were not performed, they were extracted from the CFD simulations, as the CFD simulation was validated against velocity data. The results of shear stress shows that the shear is homogeneously distributes over the predominant part of the membrane surface.

Removal of Nitrate by Autosulfurotrophic Denitrifying Bacteria: Optimization, Kinetics and Thermodynamics Study
© PSP - Parlar Scientific Publications (12/2010)
In order to find an effective way to remove nitratenitrogen (NO3 −-N) in wastewater, the autosulfurotrophic denitrifying bacteria, which could oxidize elemental sulfur and reduce nitrate, was screened from facultative anaerobic sludge. The optimum conditions for denitrification were determined by studying pH, temperature and the initial sodium bicarbonate concentration.

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