PVC geomembranes in pumped storage schemes
© Springer Vieweg | Springer Fachmedien Wiesbaden GmbH (5/2013)
Construction of pumped storage schemes is increasing in many European countries and around the world to implement/backup the energy production from windmills. To ensure efficient and safe operation, the storage reservoirs must be watertight and maintain watertightness over time. Traditional waterproofing solutions like concrete and bituminous concrete linings need periodical and/or accidental maintenance that may have significant impact on operation of the scheme. A viable alternative, based on well-proven systems adopted for new construction and rehabilitation of dams and reservoirs, is to use impervious flexible geomembranes, generally Polyvinylchloride (PVC) composite membranes embedding a backing geotextile for anti-puncture protection, which can be installed on fairly uneven base layers, reducing surface preparation.

Lime Treatment: New Perspectives for the use of Silty and Clayey Soils in Earthen Hydraulic Structures
© Springer Vieweg | Springer Fachmedien Wiesbaden GmbH (5/2013)
This paper describes the SOTREDI project, “Soil TREatment for Dikes”, undertaken by Lhoist Group, a lime producer, since 2005. This project was led in partnership with research centres and universities, and presents new perspectives for the use of soils in hydraulic context. The objective was to demonstrate that soil treatment with lime, besides enhancing the materials workability, confers high levels of mechanical properties and low permeability values. Lime-treated soils also offer a reduction of piping and internal erosion hazards, and significantly increase the erosion resistance against overtopping and overflowing.

Innovative Drinking Water Softening forms the Basis for a Joint European Project
© DIV Deutscher Industrieverlag GmbH (9/2012)
As part of the cross-border EU-subsidised project “Safeguarding the water supply in the German-Luxembourg border area”, the three neighbouring water supply associations along the River Mosel (SIDERE (Luxembourg), Verbandsgemeindewerke Konz (VGW Konz, Germany) and water supply Saar-Obermosel (WSO, Germany)) have agreed a joint action plan in order to guarantee the supply of water in the future. To this end, the hydraulic capacity of the existing central drinking water treatment plant Wasserliesch (VGW Konz) had to be extended, and the approximately 30 year-old plant had to be fully renovated to reflect the current state of the art.

Risks and Potentials Related to Shallow Urban Aquifers - A Mexican Example Urban Aquifer Management
© DIV Deutscher Industrieverlag GmbH (9/2012)
Unconfined urban aquifers as source and sink are a key element within the total urban water cycle. Unlike deeper and mostly better quality aquifers, shallow urban aquifers are (i) much more vulnerable to contamination from urban landuse, (ii) may impact urban infrastructure more directly by cellar flooding and infiltration into sewers, (iii) are easily accessible and therefore abstraction is harder to control. For the latter, they are often used - but rarely managed. In the present study, the Mexican city of San Luis Potosi (1.1 Mio inhab.) is used to demonstrate an assessment framework for shallow groundwater resources in integrated urban water management (IUWM). Assessment parameters include aquifer geometry, flow regime, water quality, existing use and potential water demand. The evaluation shows that the shallow aquifer is fit for different type of use concepts. The results have been communicated to the local stakeholders and are expected to actively influence planning and regulation processes.

Anticipating Water Scarcity of Yogyakarta, Indonesia
© DIV Deutscher Industrieverlag GmbH (9/2012)
The City of Yogyakarta, located on the slope of Merapi Volcano in Indonesia, sufferred from water scarcity. The water table has declined up to 3 m in 2001–2008. The annual rainfall of 2000 mm, is inadequate to supply the population for domestic water demand only. Eighty per cent of population use dugwells as their domestic water sources. The soil underlying the City is adequately permeable to allow the rain water to recharge the groundwater. However, the population is high, and so the demand for water. The deeper groundwater has also been abstracted before adequate recharge effort is applied. The City is sloping down from north to south on the landforms of foot slope, foot plain, and alluvial plain; intersected by 5 rivers; Bedog, Winongo, Code, Gajahwong and Tambakbayan. This situation devides the City into 12 hydrology unit areas, which are independent to each other. Most of the areas, even in the rainy season, are critical, in which the water demand exceeds the water supply from rainfall.

Management of Water Distribution Network Data – Approach and Application in an Algerian City
© DIV Deutscher Industrieverlag GmbH (9/2012)
The foundation for all technical tasks to assure a reliable water distribution is the deep going knowledge of the dynamically changing infrastructure. In developing countries, the collection and documentation of cadastral and infrastructure data is often deficient due to the inappropriate organisation of these tasks and the lack of suitable concepts. This paper presents an approach to cope with these problems, consisting of a management tool in combination with a standardised workflow. The approach is tailored towards small sized water utilities where no functional data management is present. Furthermore the application of the customised approach in Béni Abbès, Algeria is shown.

Using Pumps as Turbines Combined with Pumps for Water Supply in an Efficient Way without the Need of Electrical Power
© DIV Deutscher Industrieverlag GmbH (9/2012)
In cooperation of the Karlsruhe Institute of Technology (KIT) and KSB AG currently innovative concepts for using pumps as turbines for exploitation of drinking water are developed as a part of the German-Indonesian jointproject “Integrated Water Resources Management (IWRM) Indonesia” funded by the Federal Ministry of Education and Research (BMBF). Thus, pumps will be operated inversely to use the hydropower potential as lowcost alternative to conventional turbines. Besides low investment costs, they are characterized by robust designs and low operational and maintenance costs. Additionally, by coupling a pump running as turbine directly to a normal operating pump such an aggregate can deliver water without the need of electrical power at all. This paper discusses theoretically attainable efficiencies of such coupled modules related to different technical designs and different pump and turbine heads, to give a more general overview for very different hydraulic conditions. Main focus is the robustness and simplicity and its implication on attainable efficiency and, especially, if usage of any kind of gearboxes between pump and ‘pump as turbine’ is reasonable.

Energy-efficient MBR Process with MaxFlow Multi-deck Membrane Modules
© DIV Deutscher Industrieverlag GmbH (9/2011)
Energy is always an issue in MBR applications because of the additional energy consumption for the cake layer control. A3 Water Solutions GmbH and MMF MaxFlow Membran Filtration GmbH, Gelsenkirchen, Germany, designed a very attractive and energy efficient multideck module for larger MBR applications. Due to the smart and compact design, it is possible to combine flat sheet membranes having the advantage of minimum pretreatment in wastewater together with low energy consumption and small footprint as hollow fibre modules normally have. For Europe’s largest industrial MBR plant at Agfa Gevaert AG (Belgium), MMF MaxFlow Membran Filtration GmbH delivered triple deck Multi Modules with a membrane’s surface of 630 m² each and a footprint of < 2 m². The specific air demand (SAD) of the module is < 0.2 Nm³/(m² · h).

Membrane Filtration of Wastewater Split Flows originating from Paper Industry and Biological Wastewater Treatment of the generated Membrane Concentrates
© DIV Deutscher Industrieverlag GmbH (9/2011)
Wastewater effluents from deinking- and TMP processes were taken and were concentrated in 2 stages consisting of ultra- and nanofi ltration. Futher more, the concentrates were biologically treated with a single aerobic and a hybrid anaerobic-aerobic process. With a continuous anaerobic reactor and an aerobic SBR reactor experiments were conducted to study the variations in hydraulic retention time (HRT), food to biomass ratio (F/M) and wastewater concentrate. For the deinking wastewater concentrate, an overall average COD elimination of 51 % and 57 % was achieved for aerobic and anaerobic-aerobic treatment, respectively. Single stage aerobic treatment of TMP wastewater concentrate had an mean COD elimination effi ciency of 61 % and the hybrid anaerobic-aerobic treatment yielded 73 %. The temperature in the aerobic biological SBR reactor was kept stable at 30 °C with an F/M ratio between 0.01 and 0.5 gBOD5/(gSS · d).

Design and Operation of an Ultrafiltration Plant for the Production of Drinking Water out of the River Scheldt
© DIV Deutscher Industrieverlag GmbH (9/2011)
In April 2009, the production capacity of the conventional drinking water treatment plant “de Gavers” in Harelbeke, Belgium, was extended from 25,000 to 32,000 m³/day by the construction of an ultrafi ltration unit. In this paper, the design of the ultrafi ltration unit is elaborated and the fi rst operational results with respect to membrane fouling, membrane integrity and effl uent quality are presented. With respect to membrane fouling, in-line coagulation applying a small dose of fl occulant was found to be necessary to keep membrane fouling under control. Membrane integrity testing demonstrated a log 4 removal for micro-organisms larger than 3 μm. Compared to the conventional coagulation-fi ltration plant the ultrafi ltration unit produces an effl uent with lower bacteria counts. Moreover, the turbidity of its effl uent is also substantially lower. However, the hydraulic yield of ultrafi ltration is considerably lower than that of the conventional treatment and it results in a higher waste water production.

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