Innovative Monitoring Tool for Emission Evaluation
© Lehrstuhl für Abfallverwertungstechnik und Abfallwirtschaft der Montanuniversität Leoben (11/2014)
The measurement and evaluation of fugitive and point-source greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions, in particular methane (CH4) emissions, from biological waste treatment plants (e.g. composting facilities, biodigesters) and landfills, are an important prerequisite to demonstrate compliance with requested limit values. Traditionally, small-scale methods (e.g. chamber technique, funnel or tunnel measurement) have been used in order to estimate methane emissions from e.g. landfills.
GHG emissions during the composting process as a function of the aeration strategy
© European Compost Network ECN e.V. (6/2012)
Composting is an aerobic thermophilic biodegradation process that requires oxygen to stabilize the organic wastes and optimal moisture content for the microorganisms development (Haug, 1993). Several parameters as C/N ratio, material porosity, moisture content and aeration rules for the oxygen supply must be analyzed and controlled to optimize the process development. Frequently, aeration is defined as the most important factor for the process performance.
Mapping air pollution: the city of Thessaloniki - Greece case study
© Aristotle University of Thessaloniki (6/2009)
Air pollution is a global problem that affects natural ecosystems and poses a significant human health risk. The main objective of this study is the evaluation and mapping of air pollution levels. This paper examines traditional and new techniques and processes of mapping a geographic phenomenon like air pollution, which requires spatial methods and algorithms.
Energy from biomass
© Ostbayerische Technische Hochschule Amberg-Weiden (8/2005)
In principle biomass is organically stored solar energy. The storage occurs through photosynthesis in plants and via the plants in animals as well. According to this definition, coal, oil and gas may also be considered as biomass; after all they originate from dead plant and animal residue. As we understand it today, biomass also has a temporal dimension. It is decisive for our climate that the growth process of biomass - while it is converting carbon, mostly from the carbon dioxide (CO2) in the air, into organic matter - closely coincides with the release, e.g. by energetic utilization. This period can last several hundred years for trees and only a few weeks for other plants.
Innovative biomass power plant based on pebble-heater technology and hot air turbine
© Ostbayerische Technische Hochschule Amberg-Weiden (5/2001)
The use of biomass for combined heat and power (CHP) production becomes increasingly important. On the one hand it substitutes the usage of fossil fuels like coal, oil or natural gas; on the other hand it is neutral regarding the CO2-emissions into the atmosphere. That is the reason why many countries, especially the EU and the USA have launched very ambitious programs for increasing the usage of biomass, especially for power production.