Modelling of Solid Recovered Fuel (SRF) Properties Based on Material Composition – Chloride Quality
© TK Verlag - Fachverlag für Kreislaufwirtschaft (9/2016)
Producing solid recovered fuels (SRF) is a well-established route for recovering energy resources from municipal solid waste (household and/or commercial). Chloride content critically impacts the quality of SRF. It directly influences operation of thermal processes, having deleterious effects through the high temperature corrosion of the boilers and through demands placed on the flue gas treatment (FGT) system, which could impact emissions control. Whereas design and specification of process plant can mitigate the technical issues associated with the presence of chloride experienced during thermal treatment, processing such fuels is associated with increased capital, operating and maintenance costs. This, at best, restricts the uptake/use of SRF or increases the cost of its treatment towards achieving a reduced chloride content.

CO2 Capture and Re-Use at a Waste Incinerator
© TK Verlag - Fachverlag für Kreislaufwirtschaft (9/2016)
Recently a new innovative process developed by Procede Gas Treating B.V. has been commissioned at line 3 of the Twence plant, a Waste-To-Energy (WTE) plant located in the eastern part of the Netherlands. In this process the CO2, that usually is emitted to atmosphere, is in this new application, scrubbed from the flue gas and the obtained pure CO2 stream is used to produce a sodium bicarbonate slurry (SBC). Instead of the conventional SBC flue gas scrubbing process, where dry SBC particles are used, this SBC slurry will be injected to remove the acid components from the flue gas, before the gas is emitted to atmosphere. Due to the implementation of this process the carbon footprint of the Twence installation is reduced. The new SBC plant produces 8,000 tons of sodium bicarbonate annually and to produce this amount of SBC 2,000 ton per year CO2 is captured from the flue gas. The CO2 originates for about 50 percent from biomass.

Feasability Study of Capturing CO2 from the Klemetsrud CHP Waste-to-Energy Plant in Oslo
© TK Verlag - Fachverlag für Kreislaufwirtschaft (9/2016)
The municipality of Oslo by Energigjennvinningsetaten (EGE) was in December 2015 awarded funding from Gassnova – a state owned company that coordinates the Norwegian CCS-work – to conduct a feasibility study. The purpose of the feasibility study was to demonstrate at least one workable solution for carbon capture from energy recovery for waste, with technical descriptions, cost estimates, project plan and plan and budget for the next phase.

Life cycle assesement of pig slurry Treatment technologies
© European Compost Network ECN e.V. (6/2012)
Animal manure is one of the major agricultural wastes and its management is associated with negative impacts onglobal warming, acidification and eutrophication of natural ecosystems.These impacts are accentuated because some areas in Europe receive excessive amounts of animal manure. These socalledhotspot areas are characterized by high livestock densities and insufficient land for manure utilisation, resultingin phosphorus and nitrogen surpluses in these areas, with associated risks for losses to the environment. In other areas, the nutrients from manure are insufficient to maintain production, leading to a need to apply mineral fertilizers. Further Author: L. S. Jensen - University of Copenhagen

Alice’s Adventures in Volcano Land: The Use and Abuse of Expert Knowledge in Safety Regulation
© Lexxion Verlagsgesellschaft mbH (6/2010)
As a volcano refugee in Frankfurt, it was rather interesting to see a slow motion regulatory science disaster taking place. On April 14 2010 the Icelandic volcano Eyjafjallajökull erupted sending millions of tons of ash into the upper atmosphere. The ash cloud, blown by the prevailing winds, moved down over northern Europe. European air traffic authorities, following well established and widely published safety protocols, began shutting down the air transport system due to the well known hazard of volcano ash.

The European Regulatory Response to the Volcanic Ash Crisis between Fragmentation and Integration
© Lexxion Verlagsgesellschaft mbH (6/2010)
More than twenty years after the EU eliminated its internal land borders, the Union still lacks an integrated airspace. This seems to be the most immediate regulatory lesson of the recent volcanic ash crisis. Yet more research is needed before establishing its net effects.

Climate Change and CO2 in the Oceans and Global Oceans Governance
© Lexxion Verlagsgesellschaft mbH (12/2009)
Improving Governance of the World’s Oceans

Nanoweb – Performance you can see
© Texocon GbR (11/2009)
In recent years, our awareness of the health effects of fine particulate matter has increased, leading to E.U. legislation which will reduce such emissions in future years. Better and more powerful drives and finer injector nozzles require more clean air but also are generating always finer particles, and are discharging them to the environment via the exhaust. Diesel soot is an area of high concern, especially in Europe.

Improved Filterefficiency through Integrated Nanofibers
© Texocon GbR (11/2009)
Who is IREMA? • more than 30 years in business • focused on synthetic airfilter media • driven by technology • German company • about 30% market share in the automotive cabin air filtration

Penetration of aerosol nanoparticles in fibrous filters
© Aristotle University of Thessaloniki (6/2009)
The performance of fiber filters was evaluated according to the penetration of nano-sized particles in homogeneous and heterogeneous fibers acting in aerosol filtration. Two fiber filters were utilized: a polyester fabric filter and a cellulose HEPA filter.

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