European Harmonization of Methods to Quantify Methane Emissions from Biogas Plants
© Lehrstuhl für Abfallverwertungstechnik und Abfallwirtschaft der Montanuniversität Leoben (11/2016)
In the past years, attempts were undertaken to quantify single emission sources as well as overall emissions from biogas plants using on-site (direct) and remote sensing (indirect) methods. While measurements on site often focus on one type of CH4 sources, remote sensing methods cover the overall emission plume. Among the current available emission measurement techniques, none is in a position to be recognized as the best international reference. Therefore, the establishment of a scientifically based standardization and harmonization of methods would greatly contribute to the assessment of the fugitive emissions from biogas plants.

Legal Aspects of Emission Reductions and Carbon Credits under Evolving Climate Finance Mechanisms in Brazil
© Lexxion Verlagsgesellschaft mbH (9/2016)
Brazil broke some ground by submitting an absolute GHG-reduction goal under the Paris Agreement, but the country must now cope with implementing the needed regulatory Tools promote public and private climate action. Climate financing has evolved substantially in the past years, ranging from crediting systems, to results-based payments, to carbon pricing instruments.

Modelling of Solid Recovered Fuel (SRF) Properties Based on Material Composition – Chloride Quality
© TK Verlag - Fachverlag für Kreislaufwirtschaft (9/2016)
Producing solid recovered fuels (SRF) is a well-established route for recovering energy resources from municipal solid waste (household and/or commercial). Chloride content critically impacts the quality of SRF. It directly influences operation of thermal processes, having deleterious effects through the high temperature corrosion of the boilers and through demands placed on the flue gas treatment (FGT) system, which could impact emissions control. Whereas design and specification of process plant can mitigate the technical issues associated with the presence of chloride experienced during thermal treatment, processing such fuels is associated with increased capital, operating and maintenance costs. This, at best, restricts the uptake/use of SRF or increases the cost of its treatment towards achieving a reduced chloride content.

CO2 Capture and Re-Use at a Waste Incinerator
© TK Verlag - Fachverlag für Kreislaufwirtschaft (9/2016)
Recently a new innovative process developed by Procede Gas Treating B.V. has been commissioned at line 3 of the Twence plant, a Waste-To-Energy (WTE) plant located in the eastern part of the Netherlands. In this process the CO2, that usually is emitted to atmosphere, is in this new application, scrubbed from the flue gas and the obtained pure CO2 stream is used to produce a sodium bicarbonate slurry (SBC). Instead of the conventional SBC flue gas scrubbing process, where dry SBC particles are used, this SBC slurry will be injected to remove the acid components from the flue gas, before the gas is emitted to atmosphere. Due to the implementation of this process the carbon footprint of the Twence installation is reduced. The new SBC plant produces 8,000 tons of sodium bicarbonate annually and to produce this amount of SBC 2,000 ton per year CO2 is captured from the flue gas. The CO2 originates for about 50 percent from biomass.

Feasability Study of Capturing CO2 from the Klemetsrud CHP Waste-to-Energy Plant in Oslo
© TK Verlag - Fachverlag für Kreislaufwirtschaft (9/2016)
The municipality of Oslo by Energigjennvinningsetaten (EGE) was in December 2015 awarded funding from Gassnova – a state owned company that coordinates the Norwegian CCS-work – to conduct a feasibility study. The purpose of the feasibility study was to demonstrate at least one workable solution for carbon capture from energy recovery for waste, with technical descriptions, cost estimates, project plan and plan and budget for the next phase.

Review of the Best Available Techniques (BAT) Reference Document (BREF) for Waste Incineration – Current Status and Trends –
© TK Verlag - Fachverlag für Kreislaufwirtschaft (12/2015)
Synopsis of presentation by the Joint Research Centre’s European Integrated Pollution Prevention and Control (IPPC) Bureau

How to Derive BATAELs from Operational Values for the Waste Incineration BREF Revision? – A Proposal –
© TK Verlag - Fachverlag für Kreislaufwirtschaft (12/2015)
For many years European industrial emissions policy has taken an integrated approach, with the use of Best Available Techniques at its heart. While not originally mandatory, by 2010 the conclusions of the reference document outlining best practice for waste incineration became legally-binding. Now however, those reference documents are to be revised, along with the emission limits they set. How will this be done? This manuscript presents a method to derive BATAELs, detailed further.

Emission situation of bio-waste digestation
© Wasteconsult international (5/2015)
This paper focus on the greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions measured at 12 representative anaerobic digestion (AD) plants of the separately collected organic fraction of household waste (bio- waste). The emission analysis included the determination of methane(CH4), nitrous oxide (N2O) and ammonia (NH3). The results of the emissionmeasurements were used to assess the ecological impact of bio-waste digestion and to describe possible mitigation measures to reduce the occurring GHG emissions.

Defining the Legal Elements of Benefit Sharing in the Context of REDD+
© Lexxion Verlagsgesellschaft mbH (12/2014)
How to share the benefits from REDD+ implementation is an important consideration for any country. For benefit sharing mechanisms designed to operate at the national level (often referred to as Benefit Distribution Systems), subnational level or project level, common structural elements will exist. In legal terms, this article refers to these as the legal elements of benefit sharing. From a legal perspective, the key questions to consider with respect to benefit sharing include how benefits are defined, how benefits are allocated (and to whom), howbenefits are distributed, and howto ensure the accountability of benefit sharing arrangements (such as measures to ensure public participation and transparency). In order to assist stakeholders to deconstruct and organise themany different issues discussed within benefit sharing dialogues, this article offers a conceptual model of benefit sharing from a legal perspective, identifying and describing the different structural elements underpinning benefit sharing arrangements at any level of REDD+ implementation.

Two Case Studies on Landfill Mining: Kössen (Austria), Bishkek (Kyrgyzstan)
© Lehrstuhl für Abfallverwertungstechnik und Abfallwirtschaft der Montanuniversität Leoben (11/2014)
The former landfill “Auwirtslacke” is located in Kössen, a Tyrolean municipality at the German border. It was operated for all kinds of municipal solid waste between end of World War I and the mid 1970s without whichever emission control.

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