Disposal of Carbon Fiber Reinforced Polymers – Problems During Recycling and Impacts on Waste Incineration
© TK Verlag - Fachverlag für Kreislaufwirtschaft (9/2016)
Carbon fiber reinforced polymers (CFRPs) are becoming increasingly more ubiquitous in our daily lives. CFRPs are composite materials, consisting of carbon fibers with high mechanical capabilities and a formative polymer matrix. The production process of carbon fibers is complex and energy intensive, thus making CFRPs more expensive than comparable metal materials. The advantage of CFRPs lies in their weight; metal materials of the same properties weight up to five times as much. This makes CFRPs especially valuable in areas, where weight and cost directly correlate, but high mechanical properties are still essential.

Optical Sorting for the Recovery of Glass from WIP Slags – Pilot Plant in Bratislava –
© TK Verlag - Fachverlag für Kreislaufwirtschaft (11/2014)
Today, the sensor-based detection and separation of recyclable materials is an important component of waste processing and the recovery of raw materials worldwide. Cullet especially is an important secondary raw material and indispensable for economic and competitive hollow glass production. The more broken glass material is put into the melt, the less energy is required and fewer additives have to be used. Modern furnace designs and strict exhaust values are based on using up to eighty percent of glass fraction. With such a high proportion of glass content, the cullet quality should be appropriately high so that the melting chemistry is not adversely influenced and so as to avoid malfunctions or even hazards in the production process.

Design and validation of an Action Plan to produce animal feed vegetable flour from food waste
© European Compost Network ECN e.V. (6/2014)
Almost three quarters of vegetable by-products generated from food industry and retail trade end up in dumps. However, they can be valued as raw material for animal feed, if they are managed under appropriate conditions. The Clean-Feed project (www.cleanfeed.org) is funded by European LIFE+ program and Basque Government. The aim of this study is to reduce up to 70% of vegetable wastes generated in the Basque Country.

Recovery of nutrients from Organic Fraction of Municipal Sólid Waste (OFMSW) in the Ecoparc 2 of Montcada i Reixac, Barcelona: alternatives to the current process
© European Compost Network ECN e.V. (6/2014)
Recovery of nutrients from the OFMSW is a relevant topic as evidenced by the European initiative ”End of Waste”. Following this guideline, the Ecoparc 2 of Montcada i Reixac, belonging to the Metropolitan Area of Barcelona, submits the OFMSW to anaerobic digestion and then the digestate is separated mechanically, fisrt by pressing and then by centrifugation.

Define waste criteria for the production of high quality compost
© European Compost Network ECN e.V. (6/2014)
The Waste Framework Directive 2000/98 (WFD) contains specific provisions to define end-of-waste criteria (EWC). The objective of EWC is to remove the administrative loads of waste legislation for safe and high-quality waste materials, thereby facilitating recycling. The objective is achieved by requiring high material quality of recyclables, promoting product standardisation and quality assurance, and improving harmonisation and legal certainty in the recyclable material markets.

When product status is not enough – the development of a UK Renewable Fertilizer Matrix
© European Compost Network ECN e.V. (6/2014)
The UK standardised its approaches to ‘end of waste’ for compost in 2007, and digestate in 2009. Both are now well-established, covering around 50% of the UK’s 3.5 million tonnes of compost and 20% of the 1.4 million tonnes of digestate that were produced in 2012.

Bioresource utilization chains – Efficiency of substantial and energetic utilization Options on the example of food residues and grass cuttings in a district of Hamburg
© European Compost Network ECN e.V. (6/2014)
During the chain from an agricultural bioresource to a food product, by-products and residues are generated. The majority of the residues are handled within urban waste and waste water management structures; the contained valuables regarding the energetic content and nutrients such as N and P are actually inefficiently or not utilized. The mass flows from primary agricultural bioresources to food consumption and the whereabouts of the residues will be analyzed. Similarly the green waste sector is studied on the example of lawn cuttings.

Old landfills: Anthropogenic resources or reserves?
© DGAW - Deutsche Gesellschaft für Abfallwirtschaft e.V. (3/2014)
The overall objective of this study is to apply a primary resource classification framework to a landfill mining project in order to identify the whole landfill and its contained materials either as anthropogenic resources or reserves.

Challenges in material flow accounting – Case study iron production process
© DGAW - Deutsche Gesellschaft für Abfallwirtschaft e.V. (3/2014)
In this study the material flows of an iron production site are investigated. The plant utilizes waste plastics in addition to coke as reducing agent. Advantages and challenges for the application of material flow accounting on a company level are described, particularly with respect to data uncertainties from substance concentration measurements and error propagation.

bifa-Text No. 62: Ecoefficiency analysis of photovoltaic modules / english version
© bifa Umweltinstitut GmbH (2/2014)
The study by the bifa environmental institute describes a future-orientated view of the ecological and economic effects of photovoltaic (PV) systems along their whole life cycle.

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