Quality Assurance of compost and digestate products in Flanders, a safeguard for product quality
© European Compost Network ECN e.V. (6/2014)
The biological treatment of biowaste through composting and anaerobic digestion in the Flemish Region, is subject to the Flemish Regulation on Sustainable Materials Management and Waste, setting out the criteria for different waste streams to obtain the status of a product. For organic fertilizers or soil improvers, the waste treatment plants must obtain a quality certificate, based on a system of independent quality assurance and certification.

Design and validation of an Action Plan to produce animal feed vegetable flour from food waste
© European Compost Network ECN e.V. (6/2014)
Almost three quarters of vegetable by-products generated from food industry and retail trade end up in dumps. However, they can be valued as raw material for animal feed, if they are managed under appropriate conditions. The Clean-Feed project (www.cleanfeed.org) is funded by European LIFE+ program and Basque Government. The aim of this study is to reduce up to 70% of vegetable wastes generated in the Basque Country.

Recovery of nutrients from Organic Fraction of Municipal Sólid Waste (OFMSW) in the Ecoparc 2 of Montcada i Reixac, Barcelona: alternatives to the current process
© European Compost Network ECN e.V. (6/2014)
Recovery of nutrients from the OFMSW is a relevant topic as evidenced by the European initiative ”End of Waste”. Following this guideline, the Ecoparc 2 of Montcada i Reixac, belonging to the Metropolitan Area of Barcelona, submits the OFMSW to anaerobic digestion and then the digestate is separated mechanically, fisrt by pressing and then by centrifugation.

Protease production from organic residues by SSF and their potential uses
© European Compost Network ECN e.V. (6/2014)
An environmental-friendly process is proposed in this work to reduce the negative impact of the increasing agro industrial residues due to the faster growth of the world population. It consists on the valorization of nitrogen-rich local residues, such as soya fiber, hair waste and coffee husk, by solid-state fermentation (SSF) to obtain proteases.

CATAOLEO Project: prevention of environmental impacts from the recycling of waste oils and fats and social inclusion of waste pickers in Brazil
© European Compost Network ECN e.V. (6/2014)
Environmental concern involving the improper disposal of municipal solid waste - MSW in Brazil, and the implementation of National Policy on Solid Waste (PNRS), is necessary to fulfill the hierarchy of management options set: 1) Non-generation, 2) a reduction 3 ) Reuse, 4) recycling; 5) waste treatment; 6) waste disposal.

Biochar: climate saving soils developments in the Interreg Northsea Region Project
© ANS e.V. HAWK (10/2013)
The project Biochar: climate saving soils is a project which is funded by the EU Interreg IVB North Sea Region Programme. The 11 partners from 7 countries develop and share their biochar knowledge about standards, production, use and environmental impact. They jointly investigate and demonstrate the effect of biochar addition to soil on soil quality, crop production and green house gas emissions in demonstration fields and in laboratory tests in each country according to standard protocols.

WTERT-Greece: Waste Management in Greece & Potential for Waste-To-Energy
© WtERT USA , Columbia University, EarthEngineering Center (10/2010)

Energy and Materials from Waste and Biomass: The role of WTERT France
© WtERT USA , Columbia University, EarthEngineering Center (10/2010)

Open windrow composting manual
© Bauhaus-Universität Weimar - Professur für Abfallwirtschaft (12/2008)
In times when mineral fertilizer is not available or too expensive, compost is the most important source to provide nutrients for the plants and to adjust the soil conditions. Today many people appreciate compost as a natural source for nutrients and humus. To compost materials means also to close the natural circle of life. This manual tries to give a helping hand in designing and maintaining a composting plant in economically developing countries.

Composting and the green house effect: how to support the biological cycle
© European Compost Network ECN e.V. (10/2008)
Eco-effectiveness and cradle-to-cradle design present an alternative design and production concept to the strategies of zero emission and ecoefficiency. Where eco-efficiency and zero emission seek to reduce the unintended negative consequences of processes of production and consumption, eco-effectiveness is a positive agenda for the conception and production of goods and services that incorporate social, economic, and environmental benefit, enabling triple top line growth.

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