Modelling of Solid Recovered Fuel (SRF) Properties Based on Material Composition – Chloride Quality
© TK Verlag - Fachverlag für Kreislaufwirtschaft (9/2016)
Producing solid recovered fuels (SRF) is a well-established route for recovering energy resources from municipal solid waste (household and/or commercial). Chloride content critically impacts the quality of SRF. It directly influences operation of thermal processes, having deleterious effects through the high temperature corrosion of the boilers and through demands placed on the flue gas treatment (FGT) system, which could impact emissions control. Whereas design and specification of process plant can mitigate the technical issues associated with the presence of chloride experienced during thermal treatment, processing such fuels is associated with increased capital, operating and maintenance costs. This, at best, restricts the uptake/use of SRF or increases the cost of its treatment towards achieving a reduced chloride content.

Plastics Recycling and Energy Recovery Activities in Poland – Current Status and Development Prospects –
© TK Verlag - Fachverlag für Kreislaufwirtschaft (9/2016)
The waste disposal system in Poland is one of the least advanced in Europe. Despite great efforts over the last 20 years municipal waste landfilling has only reduced from 95 percent in 1991 to 73 percent in 2010. This still means that millions of tonnes of post-consumer waste continue to be landfilled.

Development of Waste Management in the Arab Region
© TK Verlag - Fachverlag für Kreislaufwirtschaft (9/2016)
The Department of Waste Management and Material Flow of the University of Rostock has been active in Arab countries for over 20 years, and has initiated, carried out and scientifically supervised numerous projects. Waste management and material flow is an important theme in the field of German development cooperation in the MENA regions and has gained in significance in recent years.

Refuse Derived Fuel – A European Market Heading for Overcapacity
© TK Verlag - Fachverlag für Kreislaufwirtschaft (9/2016)
During the last five years, the residual waste market has been transformed from one whose geography was largely defined by a country’s borders to one that has become truly European in nature. Increasing, and now significant, tonnages of refuse derived fuel (RDF) and solid recovered fuel (SRF) are moving across national boundaries. In the UK, for example, the export of RDF and SRF has grown from 250,000 tonnes per annum (tpa) in 2011 to 3.4 million tpa in 2015.

Use of Solid Recovered Fuels in the Cement Industry
© TK Verlag - Fachverlag für Kreislaufwirtschaft (11/2014)
The European Union Directive 2000/76/EC on the Incineration of Waste limits emissions to air, only, however, so far there are still no limits considering the levels of pollutants in the fuels, residues or products themselves when waste fuels are burnt in co-incineration plants. To overcome this shortage, the Guideline for Waste Fuels and the Waste Incineration Directive, which define quality criteria for waste fuels burnt in co-incineration plants, have been issued in Austria. According to this legal framework, waste fuels are waste that is used entirely or to a relevant extent for the purpose of energy generation and which satisfies the quality criteria laid down in the Waste Incineration Directive.

bifa-Text No. 62: Ecoefficiency analysis of photovoltaic modules / english version
© bifa Umweltinstitut GmbH (2/2014)
The study by the bifa environmental institute describes a future-orientated view of the ecological and economic effects of photovoltaic (PV) systems along their whole life cycle.

Recycling activities at the interface of waste legislation and REACH
© Lexxion Verlagsgesellschaft mbH (1/2014)
If one looks first at the REACH Regulation, the matter of waste is dealt with as follows: waste as defined in EU waste law is not a substance, mixture or article within the meaning of REACH (Article 2(2) of the REACH Regulation). Thus, the REACH Regulation is not applicable to waste and, consequently, there are no REACH obligations for the wastestage; i.e. in respect of the collection, treatment and disposal of waste. However, the exemption of Article 2(2) of the REACH Regulation does no longer apply, if substances (on their own, or in mixtures or in articles) are recovered from waste.

Decoding interdependencies between primary and secondary raw material markets by means of the Capacity Model
© Wasteconsult international (5/2011)
On the basis of the well-known life-cycle-concept the Capacity Model presents an explanation approach for the interdependencies between primary and secondary raw material markets alongside the life-cycle of different waste materials. Depending on site capacity and waste amount the price for a certain waste material is either determined by the disposal market or the energy and raw material market.

Splitting of heterogeneous waste by sensor-based sorting as a basis for optimized material-specific waste-routing
© Wasteconsult international (5/2011)
In the presented work material-specific sensor-based sorting was evaluated for its technical application on heterogeneous wastes on a pilot and a large scale, in order to optimize the routing options of waste streams in an economically attractive way.

From waste to materials management
© Wasteconsult international (6/2010)
The waste framework directive forms the legal basis of European waste legislation. The original directive dates from 1975 and was thoroughly revised in 2008. This revision served several purposes. First of all, the revision was part of the process of “better regulation” in which existing environmental legislation is screened on potential simplification without lowering the level of environmental protection. The new waste framework directive integrates three old directives, namely the old waste framework directive, the directive on hazardous waste and the waste oil directive, three pieces of legislation that showed considerable overlaps.

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