Modelling of Solid Recovered Fuel (SRF) Properties Based on Material Composition – Chloride Quality
© TK Verlag - Fachverlag für Kreislaufwirtschaft (9/2016)
Producing solid recovered fuels (SRF) is a well-established route for recovering energy resources from municipal solid waste (household and/or commercial). Chloride content critically impacts the quality of SRF. It directly influences operation of thermal processes, having deleterious effects through the high temperature corrosion of the boilers and through demands placed on the flue gas treatment (FGT) system, which could impact emissions control. Whereas design and specification of process plant can mitigate the technical issues associated with the presence of chloride experienced during thermal treatment, processing such fuels is associated with increased capital, operating and maintenance costs. This, at best, restricts the uptake/use of SRF or increases the cost of its treatment towards achieving a reduced chloride content.

Disposal of Carbon Fiber Reinforced Polymers – Problems During Recycling and Impacts on Waste Incineration
© TK Verlag - Fachverlag für Kreislaufwirtschaft (9/2016)
Carbon fiber reinforced polymers (CFRPs) are becoming increasingly more ubiquitous in our daily lives. CFRPs are composite materials, consisting of carbon fibers with high mechanical capabilities and a formative polymer matrix. The production process of carbon fibers is complex and energy intensive, thus making CFRPs more expensive than comparable metal materials. The advantage of CFRPs lies in their weight; metal materials of the same properties weight up to five times as much. This makes CFRPs especially valuable in areas, where weight and cost directly correlate, but high mechanical properties are still essential.

Regenerative Thermal Oxidation in the Cement Industry – Technology and Operation –
© TK Verlag - Fachverlag für Kreislaufwirtschaft (9/2016)
The cement industry plays a pivotal role in meeting society’s needs for housing and infrastructure. Cement is one of the most important and widely used commodities in the world and is therefore a key ingredient of economic development. Current world production of cement is well above 4,500 million tons per year and growing.

Use of SRF in cement plants
© Wasteconsult international (5/2015)
Over the last decades the German cement industry has gained lots of experience in theuse of alternative fuels in the clinker burning process. The share of suitable alternative fuels could be increased continuously. In 2013 almost 62 % of the overall thermal energy demand of the German clinker kilns was substituted via alternative fuels. The recovery process of energy and material is carried out in an environmentally safe manner. This is proven by continuous and periodic control of the emissions of the major pollutants.Furthermore, the alternative fuels are subject to a quality assurance system if necessary. Untreated mixed municipal wastes are not a suitable material for the clinker burning process. The use of alternative fuels does not only lead to a preservation of natural resources. It also delivers a significant contribution to the reduction of fossil fuel related greenhouse gas emissions. In the meantime, the use of suitable alternative materials in the cement industry is also considered as Best Available Technique (BAT).

Resource Efficiency in the German Steel Industry
© Lehrstuhl für Abfallverwertungstechnik und Abfallwirtschaft der Montanuniversität Leoben (11/2014)
Recovery and recycling of metals from residues is important for protecting our natural resources. Therefore we identified approaches for the utilization of residues of the German steel industry to improve resource efficiency. The study focuses on the residues blast furnace sludge, basic oxygen furnace dust/sludge and electric arc furnace (EAF) dust. The objective of the study was to find further, more efficient connections between process chains.

Development of an Ecodesign Tool for the Aircraft Industry
© Lehrstuhl für Abfallverwertungstechnik und Abfallwirtschaft der Montanuniversität Leoben (11/2014)
Each year over 2.2 billion passengers travel by plane. Over the next 20 years an increase of 4-5 % per annum is predicted combined with a doubling in the commercial aircraft fleet until 2050. The challenge is to meet the growth in an environmental friendly way.

bifa-Text No. 62: Ecoefficiency analysis of photovoltaic modules / english version
© bifa Umweltinstitut GmbH (2/2014)
The study by the bifa environmental institute describes a future-orientated view of the ecological and economic effects of photovoltaic (PV) systems along their whole life cycle.

Mass Flow Analysis and Economic Evaluation of Informal Sector Activities
© DGAW - Deutsche Gesellschaft für Abfallwirtschaft e.V. (3/2012)
The thesis will analyze mass flows and estimate corresponding monetary flows in three different key areas: Rio, Brazil; Delhi, India; Germany-Poland. A focus is put on formal and informal amounts, impacts on recycling quotas, advantages and disadvantages for waste management systems, legal barriers, political incentives and economic drivers to regulate informal activities and find differences and common grounds regarding waste management systems. The current contribution highlights the economic drivers and incentives that cause informal activities and presents results regarding the informal sector in Germany.

Environmentally focused production and distribution supply chain network structures
© Aristotle University of Thessaloniki (6/2009)
Enterprise optimisation can rapidly strip significant “bottom line” costs out ofglobal operations, giving companies a real competitive edge. Traditionally, the main objective of such optimisation models and methods has been to maximise the financial benefits by integrating operational, design and cost decisions. Over the last decade there has been a growing concern for the environmental impact of design and operational decisions.

New Spillway at the Esch-sur-Sûre Dam in Luxembourg
© Springer Vieweg | Springer Fachmedien Wiesbaden GmbH (10/2007)
The 50 m high arch dam of Esch-sur-Sûre, built on the River Sûre between 1956 and 1957, is located 1.2 km upstream of the town of Esch-sur-Sûre in the north west of Luxembourg.

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