Marine Geo-Engineering: Legally Binding Regulation under the London Protocol
© Lexxion Verlagsgesellschaft mbH (6/2014)
On 18 October 2013, the Contracting Parties to the 1996 Protocol to the Convention on the Prevention of Marine Pollution by Dumping ofWastes and other Matter, 1972 adopted by consensus amendments to the Protocol to regulate marine geo-engineering. The amendments are a landmark for the international control of so called ‘climate engineering’ activities because, when they enter into force, they will be the first legally binding regulation of such activities in international law.

Regulating Ocean Fertilization under International Law: The Risks
© Lexxion Verlagsgesellschaft mbH (6/2013)
This paper explores the regulatory regime for ocean fertilization under the Dumping regime, which comprises the 1972 London Convention and 1996 Protocol. It assesses the extent to which ocean fertilization is presently subject to mandatory and voluntary controls and provides an overview of the proposals currently under active consideration designed to develop a comprehensive regime for ocean fertilization. Whilst acknowledging the benefits of regulation and the importance of environmental protection, this paper concludes with a warning against considering ocean fertilization in isolation from the broader context of geoengineering and climate change more generally.

The Garbage Patch in the Oceans: the Problem and Possible Solutions
© WtERT USA , Columbia University, EarthEngineering Center (8/2011)
A study was conducted to assess the size and impact of a Garbage Patch in the Oceans. The findings from the study were compiled from a combination of mathematical and physical models estimates and data from expeditions.

Marine Snow Storms: Assessing the Environmental Risks of Ocean Fertilization
© Lexxion Verlagsgesellschaft mbH (12/2009)
The adverse impacts of anthropogenically induced climate change on the terrestrial and marine environments have been acknowledged by a succession of expert reports commissioned by global and national bodies.1 This recognition has prompted a variety of marine geo-engineering schemes to mitigate the detrimental effects of climate change on the environment including enhanced schemes to remove carbon dioxide from the atmosphere using the world’s oceans.

Marine Biodiversity and Climate Change
© Lexxion Verlagsgesellschaft mbH (12/2009)
There is now a general consensus that global warming is real and that one of the factors forcing climate change is the anthropogenic addition of greenhouse gases to the atmosphere. The implications of climate change for ecosystems are, however, not yet entirely understood. As the oceans cover 71% of the earth’s surface and play a major role in the global carbon cycle, it is important to understand how a changing climate will affect the biota not only of terrestrial systems, but also of the marine environment.

Ocean Acidification: A Litmus Test for International Law
© Lexxion Verlagsgesellschaft mbH (12/2009)
International environmental law has developed in a mostly sectoral and ad hoc manner. Regimes have been devised to address specific global or regional environmental problems, such as particular sources and types of transboundary pollution, rather than to promote transboundary environmental governance in a holistic and integrated manner. As a consequence there is today an array of international environmental regimes but a lack of coordination among them, and many regimes operate independently, and sometimes even inconsistently, in relation to each another.

Across the Top of the World? Emerging Arctic Navigational Opportunities and Arctic Governance
© Lexxion Verlagsgesellschaft mbH (12/2009)
The Arctic Ocean has witnessed dramatic thinning and melting of sea ice cover as a consequence of climate change in recent years. This has led to increasing access to and thus activities in the Arctic region, including with regard to shipping. Arctic navigational opportunities are examined and it is concluded that there are a number of major obstacles to Arctic routes transforming the pathways of global trade, at least in the immediate future. The likely future opening up of Arctic sea lanes does, however, provide a focal point for increasing external interest in the region and for changes in oceans governance.

Shifting Limits? Sea Level Rise and Options to Secure Maritime Jurisdictional Claims
© Lexxion Verlagsgesellschaft mbH (12/2009)
Among the many threats posed by sea-level rise is the potential impact of this phenomen on the extent of the maritime jurisdictional claims of coastal States. This paper provides a brief discussion of sea-level rise, before examining ways in which the maritime claims of coastal States may be impacted by rising sea levels. In particular, the traditional dependence on normal low-water baselines as the usual starting point for measuring maritime claims is problematic given the likely retreat of normal baselines inland as sealevels rise. This paper discusses options to address these challenges and outlines issues arising from the potential total inundation of a given State’s territory.

Climate Change and CO2 in the Oceans and Global Oceans Governance
© Lexxion Verlagsgesellschaft mbH (12/2009)
Improving Governance of the World’s Oceans

The role of seafronts in the spatial development and planning of Greek spa towns
© Aristotle University of Thessaloniki (6/2009)
Greece is a country rich in thermal springs, the majority of which -due to tectonic reasons etc- is located along the coastal zone. The presence of thermal springs in this specific part of the Greek territory has contributed -in the passing of time- not only to the growth of spa tourism, but also to the urbanization of those areas.

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