Development of Waste Management in the Arab Region
© TK Verlag - Fachverlag für Kreislaufwirtschaft (9/2016)
The Department of Waste Management and Material Flow of the University of Rostock has been active in Arab countries for over 20 years, and has initiated, carried out and scientifically supervised numerous projects. Waste management and material flow is an important theme in the field of German development cooperation in the MENA regions and has gained in significance in recent years.

Waste Management in India and Experience with the Implementation of Projects Based on Public Private Partnership Model
© TK Verlag - Fachverlag für Kreislaufwirtschaft (9/2016)
Decades of improper Municipal Solid Waste (MSW) Management has resulted in the creation of huge dumpsites in cities. These dumpsites are causing considerable environmental pollution and are full to capacity in most cities. Land for new disposal sites is not easily available due to increasing urbanization and population pressure. In many cases there is considerable protest from surrounding villages for setting up of a new MSW disposal site.

Current Developments in European Waste-to-Energy
© TK Verlag - Fachverlag für Kreislaufwirtschaft (9/2016)
In December 2015, one year after withdrawing the first Circular Economy package, the Juncker Commission published a broader and more ambitious proposal with revised targets and harmonized calculation methods for recycling. In parallel, the European Commission is still working on the Energy Union, a strategy that is the core of the institution’s work in which Waste-to-Energy will play a role. Finally, the Commission will publish a communication focused on Waste-to-Energy aiming to explore the opportunities offered by Waste-to-Energy, particularly with regard to synergies between resource and energy efficiencies by the end of 2016.

Waste as a chance - Waste recycling in Zimbabwe
© Eigenbeiträge der Autoren (6/2016)
Norton, a small town with 60,000 inhabitants about 40 km west of Harare, the capital of Zimbabwe, has no adequate waste management infrastructure. No regular waste separation system has been implemented. Approximately 85% of the households have a regular residual waste collection. The waste is however brought to the dumpsite without any treatment. For many years there was a dumpsite which had neither sealing nor treatment systems for protecting soil, groundwater or the atmosphere, therefore it was harming the environment.

Climate Protection - opportunity to ensure financial sustainability of solid waste management in developing countries
© Eigenbeiträge der Autoren (12/2013)
The vast majority of solid waste management (SWM) projects implemented in developing, emerging and transition countries (DETC) envisage the disposal of residual waste on a sanitary landfill. This approach leads in most cases to an increase of greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. By implementing advanced SWM systems DETC could lower their national greenhouse gas balance by 10-15%.

Development of a Legal Framework for Climate Change in Taiwan: Lessons from Europe and Germany
© Lexxion Verlagsgesellschaft mbH (4/2013)
In order to tackle climate change, many countries have been very active in announcing low-carbon policies and establishing related legislation. Even though Taiwan’s international status remains unclear in the global community and it is unable to participate formally in the climate change negotiations of the Kyoto Protocol, Taiwan regards itself as a “non-Annex I” country under the Kyoto Protocol and continues to propose various climate change policies with a view to fulfilling its national emission reduction efforts and contributing to the international society. The Sustainable Energy Development Framework of 2008 is one of many examples of this kind.

Waste Management Research in a Future Megacity - Experiences from Addis Ababa, Ethiopia
© TK Verlag - Fachverlag für Kreislaufwirtschaft (10/2012)
The article explores the current situation of the waste management system in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia. As in most urban centers in developing countries, in Addis Ababa the fate of postconsumer materials, organic waste and other residuals is not well known. This is a result of the lack of a system of data collection throughout the waste management chain. Since there is no systematic recording and assessment of the amount of waste collected and transporte by the municipal or private enterprises, and the final disposal site lacks a weighing bridge to register the amount of residues landfilled, there is almost no robust data that helps assess the performance of the waste management system.

Reform of the Clean Development Mechanism: Where Should We Head For?
© Lexxion Verlagsgesellschaft mbH (6/2011)
The Clean Development Mechanism (CDM) has been a great success in promoting mitigation projects in developing countries in the past several years. However, for various reasons, there have also been many calls for reform of the CDM. The international community has agreed that the CDM should continue and could be improved, but has not reached an agreement on the way forward. One of the issues under intensive debate is whether to create new market mechanisms, namely sectoral mechanisms. Regardless of what future agreement on this aspect would be, both lessons from the CDM practice and issues related to the operationalization of the possible new mechanisms should be fully taken into consideration. One possible solution could be developing a flexible system that suits the different situations in different countries and/or sectors.

Investing in Adaptation: Mobilising Private Finance for Adaptation in Developing States
© Lexxion Verlagsgesellschaft mbH (6/2011)
This contribution looks at public and private financing of climate change adaptation from an equity perspective. Having set out the key concepts and provided an overview of the current international legal framework for adaptation, it considers ways in which the current funding shortfall for adaptation could be filled, including through reform of the CDM. Bearing in mind the currently unrealized potential of this instrument to support equitable adaptation activities in developing countries, the paper explores the idea that “bonus CERs” could be awarded to projects supporting adaptation. Ultimately, both in relation to the CDM and more generally, the paper concludes that mobilizing private sector finance for adaptation will require “nuanced, hybrid approaches utilizing both incremental regulatory shifts and market mechanisms.”

IBI Bateke Carbon Sink Plantation: An African Forestry Pilot Case
© Lexxion Verlagsgesellschaft mbH (12/2010)
A forestry project in West Africa with a strong social and development component is perhaps the best example of what the Clean Development Mechanism was supposed to be about. Achieving it is not easy: many elements need to be brought together to produce a project that performs socially, developmentally and environmentally.

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