Future Development of Waste Management in China According to the 13th Five-Year Plan
© TK Verlag - Fachverlag für Kreislaufwirtschaft (9/2016)
Municipal solid waste (MSW) known as trash or garbage consists of food waste, paper, cardboard, plastics, PET, glass, textiles, metals, wood and leather, nappies, slug, ash, etc. are arising from human and animal activities. The rapid development and urbanization of China have resulted in an increasing volume of MSW. So the problem of MSW management has become a major social problem, but one the other hand, because of their intrinsic properties, MSW are often reusable and may be considered a resource for energy recovery. The delivering quantity of household waste averages 179 million tons in China, and the amount of untreated MSW over the years has reached 7 billion tons.

Development of Waste-to-Energy Projects
© TK Verlag - Fachverlag für Kreislaufwirtschaft (9/2016)
The first objective of waste management must always be to protect society and the health of individuals from harmful substances contained in the waste. Along the various methods around the globe with which waste has been treated the waste pyramid or waste management hierarchy has become widely accepted as the governing principle for waste management in modern societies. These principles have also been integrated in the European waste framework directive 2008/98/EC. At the bottom of the pyramid lays disposal of waste, meaning it is the least favourable option to treat a primary waste. However this does not mean implementing the waste pyramid prohibits disposal. It merely means that before disposal all other meaningful options are exhausted, and the quantity has been minimized.

Development of Waste Management in the Arab Region
© TK Verlag - Fachverlag für Kreislaufwirtschaft (9/2016)
The Department of Waste Management and Material Flow of the University of Rostock has been active in Arab countries for over 20 years, and has initiated, carried out and scientifically supervised numerous projects. Waste management and material flow is an important theme in the field of German development cooperation in the MENA regions and has gained in significance in recent years.

Use of a Fabric Filter for the Sorption – What Has to be Considered? – Experiences and Solutions –
© TK Verlag - Fachverlag für Kreislaufwirtschaft (9/2016)
In almost all flue gas cleaning systems installed at WtE-plants, the fabric filters are central components. A good example for this is the conditioned dry sorption process which is currently preferentially used in Europe. Within the filter not only the particles and the particulate heavy metals are separated from the gas flow, but also all reaction products resulting from the separation of gaseous pollutants such as HF, HCl, SOx, heavy metals and in this respect particularly Hg as well as PCDD/PCDF. In addition to this the fabric filter constitutes an excellent reaction chamber with high additive powder density in the filter cake.

The EU’s Cybercrime and Cyber-Security Rulemaking: Mapping the Internal and External Dimensions of EU Security
© Lexxion Verlagsgesellschaft mbH (3/2014)
By taking the EU Cyber Strategy as a case in point, this contribution examines how the distinction between external and internal security in contemporary EU law manifests itself in large-scale risk regulation and in particular, how the EU relies upon external norms to regulate risk. This article also maps the evolution of the rule-making processes themselves.

The Scope of Global Marketing Authorisations within the EU Legal Framework of Regulatory Data Protection for Reference Medicinal Products
© Lexxion Verlagsgesellschaft mbH (9/2013)
Regulatory Data Protection (“RDP“) shelters research and development investments carried out by pharmaceutical companies, at a point where the term of a patent might be exceeded. During the RDP term the data generated as investment results of pre-clinical tests and of clinical trials of a medicinal product may not be referred to by generic competitors. Thus, it completes the patent protection and provides another incentive for further investments into the improvement and development of innovative medicinal products.

Portability of waste management concepts and technologies
© Arbeitsgemeinschaft Stoffspezifische Abfallbehandlung ASA e.V. (9/2012)
The Federal Ministry of the Environment, Nature Conservation and Nuclear Safety finances the International Climate Initiative (IKI) by means of carbon trade revenues. IKI supports worldwide projects for climate mitigation, adaptation to climate change, and for the conservation to climate-relevant biodiversity. Since 2006 AWN Umwelt GmbH (Buchen) initiates in Gaobeidian (South of Bejing) the establishment of a mechanical biological treatment plant (MBT) aiming on the reduction of methane emissions from decay of organic waste components at landfills. The greenhouse effect of methane, which is generated at landfills, is 20times higher than the effect of CO2. Due to biological treatment, organic components are being stabilized, what reduces decay after final disposal significantly. In summer 2009 the implementation of the project started. The facility opened for operation in September 2011. In early 2012 full operation will be accomplished. The MBT-plant consists of a biological treatment with active aeration processing 40.000 t of residual waste per year. In the mechanical step 4000 t of recyclables will be segregated. The MBT-output will be utilized as a methane oxidation layer covering old landfill sites. The facility also features a model plant for anaerobic digestion. TU Braunschweig provides scientific assistance during the start up operation. The project developer AWN Umwelt operates the facility during the first year of operation prior to transferring to the local government of Gaobeidian. The virtually certifiable emission reduction is expected to 500.000 tCO2eq for a monitoring period of 20 years.

Regulating New Risks: Emergency Contexts, Institutional Reform and the Difficulties of Europeanisation – Case Studies from Portugal
© Lexxion Verlagsgesellschaft mbH (12/2011)
The regulation of risks created or made more acute by contemporary industrial and technological society (including environmental pollution, food contamination, potential environmental or public health impacts of high-voltage electric grids or of genetically modified agriculture and food) has been the focus of significant attention from the social sciences in recent decades. Analyses of risk regulation have fostered greater interest in studying the regulation of economic and social activities. In a broad sense, regulation means the control of a public agency over the activities that are valued by a community.1 More specifically, regulation can be understood to consist of legislative, administrative or conventional measures through which the state determines, controls or shapes the behaviour of economic or social agents, either directly or through delegation, to prevent the harmful effects of such behaviour on socially respected interests or values, and to guide them into directions which are socially desirable.

The System of Financial Supervision in Europe – Origin, Developments and Risk of Overruling
© Lexxion Verlagsgesellschaft mbH (12/2011)
The watchdogs in the financial sector are the independent administrative authorities operating at both European and national level. From a theoretical viewpoint, independent authorities operate within a context of progressive change in the notion of sovereignty, in the sense of national sovereignty that, from being a mere privilege of single states, takes on a “transversal” nature. From an economic viewpoint, it seems necessary to appoint independent authorities to supervise the market in order to guarantee an adequate degree of security and transparency, given the complexity of market relations. Economics has to be considered as a realm in which democratic ideals may be fully achieved on the strengths of the basic nature of the market-directed economy, the cradle of free trade and the emergence and consolidation of agreements between the actors operating in it.

Barriers to Climate Technology Transfer – The Chimera of Intellectual Property Rights
© Lexxion Verlagsgesellschaft mbH (6/2011)
It has principally been in the context of technology transfer that the intellectual property (IP)/climate change relationship has been explored to date. Moreover, it has been IP lawyers rather than climate lawyers that have made the running in the literature. One of their key concerns is that IP protection might act as an impediment to the acquisition of new technologies in developing countries, with deleterious impacts on climate change mitigation. This paper explores the relative non-engagement with this issue by climate lawyers and argues that there is a rational basis for this lacuna, namely, that of the many barriers to the deployment of environmentally sound technologies, intellectual property rights (IPRs) protection is a relatively peripheral one. Whilst the same may not be said for adaptation technologies, for the purposes of maintaining average temperatures within the strictures of the 4th Assessment Report, recourse to policy tools such as the McKinsey cost curve reveal that the prospect of IPRs operating as a significant barrier to deployment is substantially chimerical.

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