Refuse Derived Fuel – A European Market Heading for Overcapacity
© TK Verlag - Fachverlag für Kreislaufwirtschaft (9/2016)
During the last five years, the residual waste market has been transformed from one whose geography was largely defined by a country’s borders to one that has become truly European in nature. Increasing, and now significant, tonnages of refuse derived fuel (RDF) and solid recovered fuel (SRF) are moving across national boundaries. In the UK, for example, the export of RDF and SRF has grown from 250,000 tonnes per annum (tpa) in 2011 to 3.4 million tpa in 2015.

Current Developments in European Waste-to-Energy
© TK Verlag - Fachverlag für Kreislaufwirtschaft (9/2016)
In December 2015, one year after withdrawing the first Circular Economy package, the Juncker Commission published a broader and more ambitious proposal with revised targets and harmonized calculation methods for recycling. In parallel, the European Commission is still working on the Energy Union, a strategy that is the core of the institution’s work in which Waste-to-Energy will play a role. Finally, the Commission will publish a communication focused on Waste-to-Energy aiming to explore the opportunities offered by Waste-to-Energy, particularly with regard to synergies between resource and energy efficiencies by the end of 2016.

Identifying the factors influencing environmental attitudes and behaviors of rural population in Crete, Greece
© European Compost Network ECN e.V. (6/2014)
Rural population affects local environment in a far more significant way that urban population affects the global one. The attention that has been given for the past decades in informing the rural population and changing their approach towards environmental protection is insignificant in comparison with the relevant efforts made for the urban population. As a result local environment is often facing a considerable and possible irreversible deterioration, mainly due to the way the relevant population conducts its daily practices.

Fostering REDD+ Investment Through Effective Legal Frameworks: Lessons From the Development of Early Forest Carbon Projects
© Lexxion Verlagsgesellschaft mbH (4/2013)
Forest carbon projects have been developed under the Clean Development Mechanism (CDM), the voluntary market and other domestic schemes. These projects provide insight into the practical challenges for REDD+ implementation with respect to defining rights to carbon, ensuring the permanence of REDD+ areas, and creating “investment-grade” carbon commodities which are capable of attracting private sector finance. Given that private sector finance will be necessary to scale-up REDD+ implementation, insight regarding the legal frameworks required to support private sector investment is valuable. This paper does not seek to advocate for either a market-based or projectlevel approach to REDD+ implementation, but draws on practical experience with early forest carbon projects to explore how legal frameworks for REDD+ can encourage private sector Investment.

Material Stocks and Flows from Demolition of a Historical Company Site
© Lehrstuhl für Abfallverwertungstechnik und Abfallwirtschaft der Montanuniversität Leoben (11/2012)
To estimate the stocks of materials in industrial buildings depending on type, size, usage and age of the buildings as a first step a case study of a production site in Weinheim (Baden-Württemberg) has been carried out. Additionally to the characterization of the buildings and the material stocks, the demolition procedure and possible recycling strategies have been investigated.

How to Operate as Technology Provider and Contractor in the International EfW World
© TK Verlag - Fachverlag für Kreislaufwirtschaft (10/2012)
The classic main markets in Europe for EfW plants have come close to a point of saturation. Legislation and many efforts spent over the past years to introduce an environmentally friendly disposal of municipal solid waste resulted in a network of plants and capacities of which a major extension may not be expected anymore.

Acceptance and Realisation of Waste-to-Energy Projects - Communications of the Project Management with Politics and Concerned Persons
© TK Verlag - Fachverlag für Kreislaufwirtschaft (10/2012)
The real control over the success rate for building new EfW plants is not how well we communicate the technology to hosting communities, but their perception of the risk from that technology.

Development of Waste-to-Energy Projects
© TK Verlag - Fachverlag für Kreislaufwirtschaft (10/2012)
Waste-to-energy plants contribute substantially to achieve the goal of a reliable, sustainable and efficient disposal of waste. Recovery of energy and valuable material is an additional benefit. Before starting the technical elaboration, the non-technical questions have to be answered. They are strongly dependent on local boundary conditions. For the financial aspects some general hints are given as well as rules of thumbs. The technical evaluation bases on system analysis and comparison of operational, design, energetic and environmental criteria.

Waste Incineration in the 21st Century - Energy-Efficient and Climate-Friendly Recycling Plant and Pollutant Sink
© TK Verlag - Fachverlag für Kreislaufwirtschaft (10/2012)
The first waste incineeration plants in Europe were built in the middle of the 19th century. Hygiene played an important role, because plagues had again and again hit many countries, cost numerous lives.

Implementation of a Recovery System with Optimized Interfaces - The Total Plastic Concept
© TK Verlag - Fachverlag für Kreislaufwirtschaft (10/2012)
The German system for recovery of mixed dry recyclables has been established in the early 90s. It was installed to increase the recycling rates additional to the already existing system: the separate collection of papaer and glass.

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