Orbit 2014


Volunteers to translate waste prevention policy to citizens?
Kristof Van Stichelen
In Flanders, Vlaco npo supports and implements the policy of biowaste (green waste, vegetable, fruit and garden waste and industrial biowaste). Vlaco is a membership organisation with representation of both the Flemish government (OVAM and intermunicipal waste associations) and the private sector (private waste treatment companies). All our activities support the sustainable material cycle of biowaste.
Identifying the factors influencing environmental attitudes and behaviors of rural population in Crete, Greece
Fenia Galliou, Dr. Michael Fountoulakis, Professor Nicolas Kalogerakis, T. Manios
Rural population affects local environment in a far more significant way that urban population affects the global one. The attention that has been given for the past decades in informing the rural population and changing their approach towards environmental protection is insignificant in comparison with the relevant efforts made for the urban population. As a result local environment is often facing a considerable and possible irreversible deterioration, mainly due to the way the relevant population conducts its daily practices.
Evolution of carbon and total nitrogen during vermicomposting of putrescible waste using various types of vermibeding (chestnut leaves, vermiculite, soil and vermicompost)
Hassina Ghiti, G. Ouahrani
In our study we focused our work on the treatment of putrescible waste by vermicomposting in the presence of Eisenia fetida. Furthermore, we have used 4 types of vermibeding for earthworms: dead chestnut leaves, vermiculite, soil, and commercial vermicompost. During this experiment we followed changes in total carbon and total nitrogen. We have also made the counting of the number of individuals of Esenia fetida. In different developemental stages.
Selective collection of biodegradable municipal waste in tourist destinations for climate mitigation: issues of inefficiency in the case of Verdecoop cooperative, Bahia – Brazil
Karina Souza, Ana Silveira, Ana Paula Duarte Gomes
The inadequate disposal of biodegradable municipal waste (BMW), including food scraps, garden waste, paper and cardboard, is the main reason of greenhouse gases emissions (GEE), resulting in climate changes (CC) (CEMPRE, 2011). Some of the large producers of BMW are from tourism sector, effect of consumption patterns and food waste production characteristic of the sector.
Operational viability of including selective biowaste collection in the city of Campo Grande, MS, Brazil
Tiago Ramalho, Karina Souza
The recent Brazilian Solid Waste Policy establishes that the Municipality is responsible for awarding separate collection systems, composting system to implant biowaste and articulate with the economic and social agents ways to use the compost produced, however, there are operational hurdles that hinder their implementation. The biowaste in Brazil represent about 60% of total domestic waste collected, and in most cities these wastes are destined for landfills or dumps. In Campo Grande, MS, there is selective collection for dry waste and the biowaste is collected as undifferentiated. Therefore, this paper proposes an analysis of the operational viability of including biowaste in the selective collection of the Municipality, inclusion of recyclable materials in the organic recycling process and the identification of potential consumers for the generated compost.
CATAOLEO Project: prevention of environmental impacts from the recycling of waste oils and fats and social inclusion of waste pickers in Brazil
Karina Souza, V. Fonseca, G. Debeus
Environmental concern involving the improper disposal of municipal solid waste - MSW in Brazil, and the implementation of National Policy on Solid Waste (PNRS), is necessary to fulfill the hierarchy of management options set: 1) Non-generation, 2) a reduction 3 ) Reuse, 4) recycling; 5) waste treatment; 6) waste disposal.
Degradation of similar Iprodione pesticides and their dichloroanilines (DCAs) metabolites by pesticide-degrading rhizobacteria
Marco Campos
Important worldwide efforts to investigate bioremediation strategies have been encouraged to reduce environmental impact caused by pesticide application in the last years. In this way, the rhizodegradation in cooperation with pesticide-degrading rhizobacteria might be a suitable alternative to avoid point source contamination by pesticides and their metabolites. Therefore, the objective for this study was to test the degradation of similar iprodione pesticides and their dichloroaniline (DCA) metabolites by pesticide-degrading rhizobacteria.
Aerobic Composting of Livestock Manure by Thermophile and Enzymes
T. Kimura
In Japan, 84 million tons of livestock manure are generated annually, Concerns about manure’s adverse impact on the environment, including its offensive odor, pollution of water, and greenhouse-gas generation, have made livestock farmers recognize the need to find ways to properly process and effectively utilize manure. Livestock farmers are prohibited from open-air piling and burying of the discharges. They must properly dispose of it in accordance with „Act on the Appropriate Treatment and Promotion of Utilization of Livestock Manure”, which took effect in 2004 in Japan. This act substantially recommend aerobic composting.
Biogas from fruit and vegetable waste in a decentral process
Dr. Brigitte Kempter-Regel, S. Görner, Dr.-Ing. Ursula Schließmann
Biomass with relatively high water content and low lignocellulose fibers, such as fruit and vegetable waste, is suitable for anaerobic treatment to produce biogas. In a pilot plant nearby a wholesale market where the fruit and vegetable waste are generated this biogas process is investigated in a decentral biogas plant.
The effect of calcium carbonate, compost and biochars treatments on the chemical properties and solubility of organic materials of sandy soils
Annamaria Holes, Ph.D. Tamás András Szegi, Prof. Dr. Marta Fuchs, Ph.D. László Aleksza
Composting and pyrolysis of wastes with high organic matter content could be a solution for recovery, reduction or stabilization of the amount of generated biodegradable wastes, and thus support waste management and environmental prevention. Furthermore using compost and biochar in agriculture plays an important role in soil nutrient supply, and in improvement of physical and chemical properties as well.
Effect of organic material input on the crush strength of seven granulated organo-mineral fertilisers
Ph.D. Antoine Karam, Lotfi Khiari, Marie-Jude Merisier
Organo-mineral fertilisers (OMF) based on a judicious mix of both organic materials and mineral nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P) plant nutrients play an important role in improving soil fertility and crop yield. However, the efficiency and reliability of OMF made from mixtures of separated solid fraction of pig slurry (SPS) and ammonium phosphate as alternative sources of N, P and organic amendments depends, among several factors, on the crush strength (CS) of OMF granules.
Horse manure co-composted with biochar affects degradation process and compost quality
Helis Rossner, Dr. Henn Raave, Alar Astover, Dr. Mait Kriipsalu
Biochar has potential to improve soil fertility specially when it is applied together with organic fertilisers e.g. compost. Previous studies have shown better results when biochar is co-composted with organic waste or manure.
The effect of municipal organic waste compost on the spring barley
Helis Rossner, Ph.D. Avo Toomsoo, Triin Teesalu, Dr. Mait Kriipsalu, Alar Astover
Organic household waste composts can be used as an agricultural soil conditioner or fertiliser when it is processed and certified according to the recognised composting standards. In addition to the compost quality its fertilisation effect may depend on the spreading technology. The aim of our study was to evaluate the effect of source-separated organic household waste and category III animal by-products compost on the spring barley yield and yield quality.
Diethyl phthalate bioaccumulation and physiological response in plants
Liisa Maunuksela
The increased production and use of composted or digested municipal sewage sludge as soil improver or growing media for plants raises concern of possible accumulation of organic pollutants in the environment. Phthalates are a group of chemicals which are included in the priority list to be monitored in sludge targeted for agriculture in the EU.
Investigation of spectral properties of high organic matter content wastes and soil-waste complexes
Ph.D. Tamás András Szegi, Prof. Dr. Marta Fuchs, Miklós Gulyás, Annamaria Holes, Ph.D. László Fenyvesi
High organic matter content non-hazardous wastes are important and potentially growing sources of material that could be applied to cultivated soils to improve their fertility and increase their organic matter content, thus also potentially contributing to the prevention of global warming through carbon sequestration. Tools to predict the fate of these kinds of organic wastes/soil amendments in soil would enable better account to be taken of their contribution to global environmental balances and spectroscopic measurements and analyses seem to be promising and novel methods.
Recovery of holocellulose from soil-incorporated organic residues using the van Soest method
Ph.D. Antoine Karam, Sandra-Milena Paramo Quintero, Ph.D. Léon-Étienne Parent
In general, soil carbon models consider two C pools as labile and recalcitrant. The labile soil C pool is quantified as particulate organic matter determined by sieving or as the light fraction measured densimetrically.
Evolution of the microbial activity in wheat straw-compost amended soils under polluted conditions (Cu-As)
Jorge Medina, Eduardo Enrique Morales, Dr. Sebastián Meier, Dr. Fernando Borie, Dr. Pablo Cornejo Rivas
Composts from agricultural residues are degraded relatively fast under field conditions. In order to improve the C stabilization, composting studies were conducted including addition of metallic oxides for altering C stabilization via changes of chemical properties of humic acids (HAs).
Soil physical measurements in a long-term sewage sludge compost experiment
Attila Tomócsik, V. Orosz, Marianna Makádi
In Hungary, large areas of sandy soils are in the regions of Somogy, Kiskunság and Nyírség. In the region of Nyírség, there are more than 400.000 hectares of sandy soils. These soils are poor in mineral and organic colloids and have a low fertility as determined by low water retention and shortage of macro- and micronutrients.
Occurrence of tetracycline in sewage sludge and effect of the soil type on tetracycline adsorption
Dr. Claudio Inostroza Huaracán, Marco Campos, M. C. Diez, Heidi Laura Schalchli Saez
The sewage sludge (SS) have been used as soil enhancers by promoting physical and chemical processes. There are a high percentage of antibiotics which are poorly degraded even in biological systems. The aims of this study were to identify and quantify tetracyclines (TC) in three different SS used as organic amendment and to evaluate the effect of the soil type (Andisol and Ultisols), organic matter (OM) and pH on TC adsorption.
Nutrients from anaerobic digestates in a range of ornamental and edible horticultural applications
Dr. David Tompkins
The anaerobic digestion sector in the UK continues to increase rapidly, with 42 commercial, waste-fed plants operational by January 2014, with an operational capacity of around 2 million tonnes. Whilst agriculture and field horticulture are the most important sectors for digestate use, these are not considered to be high value markets for digestate. WRAP has therefore supported a range of trials and feasibility studies with digestate in alternate markets – including table-top strawberries and protected salad crops (fertigation); growing media (peat replacement); and sports turf (fertiliser replacement).
Sources of nitrogen in organic farming
Dr. Maja Manojlović
Plant nutrition with nitrogen (N) in organic farming is based on the use of natural soil fertility which can be maintained and increased by cultivation of legumes, plowing under of harvest residues and application of different types of manures and composts. Unlike the other essential nutrients, N in the soils and fertilizers permitted for use in organic farming is mainly in the organic forms which are not directly accessible to the plants and which have to be mineralized to the forms available to the plants.
Vermicompost and vermi-leachate impact on strawberry yield and fruit quality
Dr. Maja Manojlović, Nenad Magazin
With the increasing need to conserve natural resources, recycling of organic wastes assumes major importance. In this respect, vermicomposting, as technology for effective recycling of organic wastes, is an environmentally acceptable means of converting waste into nutritious compost.
Chemical and biological changes during composting of disposable diapers with organic wastes
Marco Campos, Dr. Claudio Inostroza Huaracán, M. C. Diez
The final disposition of used diapers are usually landfills, which producing a large waste accumulation due to their high persistence in the environment, because these contain a relevant proportion of organic materials in their composition such as cellulose and urine.
The use of elemental sulphur to control pH in potting soil mixtures with green waste compost
Dr. ir. Bart Vandecasteele, Barbara Hoekstra
We tested the feasibility to reduce or completely replace peat in potting soil without quality reduction.
GIS based decision making tool for helping to implement the valorization alternatives of biogas and animal feed from organic waste
David San Martin, Marta Cebrian, Susana Etxebarria, Jaime Zufia
Organic wastes usually end in a dump, in spite of having a great potential for producing biogas or animal feed. However, the profitability of these valorization alternatives depends on a big number of viability factors. The high risk of underestimating these factors might make unprofitable these valorization options.
Technosols manufacturing from sewage sludge to recover degraded soils
Marcos Martin
The Technosols (TCNS) are “anthropogeomorphic material”, which includes those residues from anthropogenic activities, with similar characteristics to the geological and biogenic components of soils that can act as source material of them through the edaphogenesis processes.
Quality of liquid digestate as fertilizer – challenges for analytical procedures and regulations
Roald Sørheim
During anaerobic digestion (AD), methane and CO2 are released during decomposition of organic matter. Consequently, the concentration of heavy metals and other possible harmful substances will increase on dry matter basis (DM). The concentrations of plant nutrients in the digestate will also increase. The quality of the feedstock is therefore important.
Enzymatic activity and humic acids correlation during maturity of grape pomace composting process
Maria M. Martinez, Rodrigo Ortega, Prof. Dr. Marc J.J. Janssens
To determine the correlation between enzymatic activity and humic and fulvic acids content, as maturity indicators, in a grape pomace composting process, the evolution of enzymatic activities β-glucosidase, urease, acid and alkaline phosphatase, humic (Ha) and fulvic (Fa) acid contents C/N, Ha/Fa, and N-NH4/NNO3 ratios and were evaluated, during a 180-day period.
Evaluation of composting as pig manure management strategy at farm level in the region of Murcia (Spain)
José Antonio Sáez Tovar, Mª Pilar Bernal Calderón, Rafael Clemente
Intensification of the livestock sector has improved the production efficiency and reduced economic costs, but it has also introduced a major environmental risk derived from the generation of vast amounts of animal waste and slurries in relatively small areas. The Region of Murcia (Spain) is one of the zones with the highest concentration of pig farms in Spain. This leads to an excess of pig slurry production for given the reduced land available for its agricultural use. This fact suggests both the need of a deep evaluation of the amount of pig slurry which can be used in vulnerable areas (170 kg N ha-1) in Murcia and the assessment of the excess of pig slurry which may need alternatives for treatment and recycling.
Development of composting industry in China
Li Ji
This paper introduced the development of composting industry in China in last 20 years. It covered major composting fields in this largest organic waste producing country, as history of compost making, spatial and temporal trend of generation of organic solid wastes, current situation of treatment of agricultural wastes, municipal solid wastes, sewage sludge and food wastes.
Agronomical valorisation of bovine slaughterhouse waste by aerobic composting: effects of the compost obtained on tomato (Solanum Lycoperscicum) germination and growth, variety of mongol-hybrid F1, in vegetation pots
Mamadou A. Seck
Compost originating in the mixture of household waste, chicken droppings and fish flour organic residues was used as an organic improvement in a tomato culture. The experimental device included 10 plots of 15 m2 each with 5 test plots and 5 check plots. All plots had received 30 kg of horse manure and the same amount of fish flour; only the test plots had received 7 tons of compost per hectare and had not been the object of phytosanitary treatment unlike the check plots that had been treated against nematodes and fungi.
Urban Forest Waste Management in Small Municipalities of São Paulo State, Brazil
Mariana Cerca, Dr. Adriana Maria Nolasco
The waste management of urban trees is related to one of the main challenges of urban centers: the proper disposal of solid waste, in compliance with the Solid Waste National Policy. Under the current circumstances in Brazil, the mismanagement has resulted in high costs for municipalities, affecting large areas for disposal, pollution and degradation of the environment. Entails also the residues materials that have potential for the manufacture of various products such as well as compost. Thus, was designed a model for urban forest waste management for small municipalities that have special technical, administrative and economic conditions that often prevent an appropriate disposal of such waste.
Solar Energy - as a Renewable Energy Source – for Improving the Protection Cultivation Systems on Sweet Pepper Production under plastic tunnels
Ph. D. Farouk El Aidy
This study was carried out at the Experimental Farm of Faculty of Agriculture, Kafrelsheikh University, Egypt during the two seasons of 2011/2012 and 2012/2013 under walk-in plastic tunnels on bell pepper hybrids (Capsicum annuum, L.) and Strawberry plants. The aim of this study is to evaluate bell pep per plant and strawberry growth, fruits yield and quality under semi-controlled (heating & cooling) tunnel , comparing with the uncontrolled tunnel by using the Solar Energy as the source of energy.
Delineation of greenhouse gas emission reduction targets from Philippine waste sector legislation to support Nationally Appropriate Mitigation Actions (NAMA)
PD Dr.-Ing. Konrad Soyez
The mitigation of Greenhouse Gas (GHG) emissions from waste management can contribute to combat climate change where national and local governments play major roles.The adoption of Nationally Appropriate Mitigation Actions (NAMA) as anchor program may stimulate the development of relevant action plans. In the Philippines, as in other developing countries, many municipalities struggle to upgrade their solid waste management (SWM) system due to limited budgets and lack of expertise in operating efficient technologies.
The NAMA Facility – Providing support for the implementation of NAMAs
Hendrikje Reich
As announced during the climate negotiations 2012 in Doha, Qatar, the German Federal Ministry for the Environment, Nature Conservation, Building and Nuclear Safety (BMUB) and the Department of Energy and Climate Change (DECC) of the United Kingdom (UK) jointly established the NAMA Facility and contributed jointly 120 million euro of funding to support developing countries and emerging economies that show leadership on tackling climate change and that want to implement ambitious climate protection measures (NAMAs).
NAMAs – Introduction of a new instrument for climate protection and its relevance for the waste sector
Judith Wolf
Nationally appropriate mitigation actions (NAMAs) are an emerging international climate mitigation instrument. It is supposed to be used by developing countries to make progress in reducing their domestic greenhouse gas emissions, supported and enabled by technology, financing and capacity building in a measurable, reportable and verifiable (MRV) manner. So far the definition from the Bali Action Plan – but what exactly is a NAMA?
Monitoring, Reporting & Verification (MRV) – How environmental sciences can contribute to improving waste management practices in terms of climate protection and sustainability
Dipl.-Ing. Bernhard Gerstmayr
Despite its seemingly technical nature, MRV is yet one of the most important and contentious issues in any international arrangement on climate protection. The term encompasses all measures to collect performance data and to compile this information in reports and inventories, and to subject these to some form of review.
Potentialities of Nationally Appropriate Mitigation Actions (NAMAs) project for Brazilian National Policy on Solid Waste and National Policy on Climate Change implementation
Karina Souza
Climate change (CC) and municipal solid waste (MSW) management have common demands to mitigate greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. The MSW disposal represent more than 20% of anthropogenic methane (CH4) (IPCC, 2005). The estimated contribution of this sector in anthropogenic GHG emissions is 3-5% (UNEP, 2010), and has great potential for reducing fuel and energy consumption in collection and treatment of CH4 avoided emissions in landfills by biodegradable municipal waste (BMW) diversion to biodigestion and composting, and fix carbon in soils by compost or biofertilizers produced application, and reduce natural resources extraction by multi-material recycling.
Decentralized Composting in Low Income Countries - Urban Land Price and Compost Value as Key Factor
Michele Giavini
Urban population is steadily increasing across the world; most recent estimates show that by 2050, 70% of the world’s population will be urban. As in low and middle income countries the organic fraction plays a major role in MSW, the feasibility of its collection and treatment in megacities across the world will become more and more an issue to be investigated.
Climate change mitigation through solid waste management
Dr.-Ing. Abdallah Nassour, Prof. Dr. Michael Nelles
The vast majority of solid waste management (SWM) projects implemented in developing, emerging and transition countries (DETC) envisage the disposal of residual waste on a sanitary landfill. Mostly this leads to an increase of greenhouse gas emissions compared to the given situation. With the implementation of advanced SWM systems DETC could lower their national greenhouse gas balance by 10 – 15%. The paper discusses the possibilities how financial sustainability of advanced SWM systems could be safeguarded in DETC. It is part of a doctoral thesis recently finalized at the University of Rostock / Germany.
Development of Governmental Prevention Strategy. The case study of Cyprus
Antonis Zorpas
The annual per capita production of waste in Cyprus is estimated at 468 Kg for residential areas and 670 Kg for tourist areas, while the total waste is estimated at the end of 2012 up to 630000t according to the official statistics. The Waste Prevention Strategy for Cyprus suggests that local authorities and policy makers should now put more emphasis on waste prevention and re-use, in order to achieve a reduction of disposal costs, CO2 emissions and a decrease in the demand for natural resources.
Development of a web-based support tool for waste prevention at local authority level
Dr. Katia Lasaridi, Dr. Konstadinos Abeliotis, Christina Chroni, A. Kalogeropoulos, Antonis Mavropoulos
The paper reports on the development of a novel web-based Decision Support Tool, the WASP Tool (acronym of the words Waste Prevention), that enables LAs to select and implement the optimum waste prevention programme for their local circumstances and prepare their Waste Prevention Plans. The tool has been developed in the context of the LIFE+ project “WASP Tool - Development and Demonstration of a Waste Prevention Tool for Local Authorities” – LIFE10 ENV/GR/622”) and specialises in the geographical area of Greece and Cyprus, with high potential to better reflect need of the Mediterranean space.
Environmental assessment of waste prevention activities
Dr. Konstadinos Abeliotis, Christina Chroni, Antonis Zorpas, Dr. Katia Lasaridi
Waste prevention measures do not just aim at the reduction of waste; they also prevent the environmental impacts associated with the utilisation of resources during their entire life cycle. Thus, a key issue in waste prevention is its environmental assessment. Review of international literature reveals that the use of life cycle assessment is an established way for carrying out this kind of environmental assessments.
Estimating household food waste in Denmark: case study of single family households
Vincent Maklawe Essonanawe Edjabou, Charlotte Scheutz, Thomas Astrup
Food waste prevention remains the first priority in the European Waste Framework Directive, which aimed to halve the amount of food wasted within the EU Member States by 2025. Thus, reliable data on food waste composition and quantity are crucial for assessing the current food waste situation and determine potential improvements.
Biological waste strategies in Poland
Agnieszka Spodzieja
In Poland there are living about 38,54 mln people. 135,2 mln tons of waste was produced in Poland in 2012, where 9% (12,1 mln tons) went for communal waste (2013). This result ranks Poland at 6th place among European countries in terms of the generated waste amount.
Planning, starting, optimising separate collection of organics: approaches and results (including city centres)
Dr. Enzo Favoino
Separate collection of organics is a key part of schemes to achieve highest rates of recovery of materials. Also, it allows recovery of clean organic resources, which are then suitable for application onto farmlands, thereby causing multiple beneficial effects as - locking C in soils (which helps tackling climate change) - fighting desertification and erosion - reducing use of mineral fertilisers (and eutrophication that may occur in sensitive areas and wetlands) - preventing pathogens thanks to the suppressive power (which reduces use of pesticides), etc.
Monitoring and Evaluation of waste prevention activities in Selected Groups
Antonis Zorpas, Dr. Katia Lasaridi, Pantelitsa Loiziab, Christina Chroni, Andriani Georgiou
According to Waste Framework Directive (directive 2008/98/EC), waste prevention are the measures taken before a substance, material or product has become waste, that reduce the quantity of waste, the adverse impacts of the generated waste on environmental and human health or the content of harmful substances.
Household food waste in Greece - estimation through a self-reported food waste diary
Dr. Konstadinos Abeliotis, Christina Chroni, A. Kyriacou, Antonis Zorpas, Dr. Katia Lasaridi
According to a study for food waste in the EU-27, households produces approximately 42% of the total amount of food waste. Even though the generation of household food waste is only one part of the whole picture, there is growing evidence that their contribution to the problem is particularly significant. However, there is a complete lack of quantitative data on the food waste generation in Greece. Thus, the aim of the present research was to fill the lack of information on the attitudes and behaviours of Greek households towards food waste generation and prevention.
The separate collection of residential organic waste in the city of Milan (Italy)
Paola Petrone, Danilo Vismara
The challenge of collecting the separate fractions of urban waste is at its highest when doing so from areas of high population densities with high levels of multi-occupancy housing. The City of Milan is one such area with a population density of 7000/km2 and over 80% of housing classified as multi-occupancy. In this respect it is similar to other European cities like Barcelona, Berlin and Vienna but unlike these cities, since 2012 Milan has been collecting food waste using the intensive door to door system widely adopted in less dense territories.
The Role of Source Separated Food Waste in the New Waste Management Plan in Lombardy, Italy
Michele Giavini, Paola Zerbinati, Elisabetta Confalonieri
Lombardy is a Region in northern Italy, with a population of 10,000,000 people and 1546 municipalities. Recently it drafted the new regional waste management plan, setting a new target in terms of recycling rate (65% for each municipality, to be achieved by 2020). In order to achieve this high target, the Region recognizes the key role of food waste as the first fraction to be separated by citizens. In Lombardy, currently more than 600 Municipalities have already implemented the kerbside collection scheme based on biodegradable and compostable bags for the collection of food waste only, without garden waste.
Towards a circular bio-economy: challenges for the biowaste management
Ann Braekevelt
Due to the fact that the availability of agricultural area in Flanders is rather limited, the supply of raw materials is often linked to the recovery and recycling of valuable products from biomass waste fractions and side streams of existing industrial food, wood processes,... A lot of challenges are waiting due to European or local measures for e.g. the anaerobic digestion plants in Flanders because of the increasing costs for biowaste with biogas potential and the phosphate restrictions for using digestate on land.
Ecological and economic benefits of compost and digestate products
Elka Vandaele, Kristel Vandenbroek, Wim Vanden Auweele, Ingrid Vandenbroucke, Christophe Boogaerts
European soils are systematically degrading. The European Soil Strategy urges more attention to the need for organic matter in soil: 45% of the soils in Europe show a lack of organic matter. This is also a problem in Flanders: almost 50% of the soils are below the target of organic matter. A range of measures is necessary for restoring the organic matter content: green manures, crop residues, organic fertilizer and soil improvers will all be needed. It is therefore of great importance that in the future sufficiently high amounts of quality composts and digestate products are produced, because these have shown to be excellent sources of stable organic matter and/or contribute to the soil fertility and food supply.
Bioresource utilization chains – Efficiency of substantial and energetic utilization Options on the example of food residues and grass cuttings in a district of Hamburg
PD Dr. Ing. habil. Ina Körner, Saskia Hertel
During the chain from an agricultural bioresource to a food product, by-products and residues are generated. The majority of the residues are handled within urban waste and waste water management structures; the contained valuables regarding the energetic content and nutrients such as N and P are actually inefficiently or not utilized. The mass flows from primary agricultural bioresources to food consumption and the whereabouts of the residues will be analyzed. Similarly the green waste sector is studied on the example of lawn cuttings.
Development of indicators to evaluate manure processing technologies. Anaerobic digestion and composting of cow manure plant as case study
August Bonmatí, Laura Burgos, Laura Tey, Joan Noguerol, Xavier Flotats
Intensive livestock production has experienced a rapid growth in the last few decades, especially concentrating in certain geographical areas. The improper management of livestock manure causes severe environmental impacts related to eutrophication, acidification, release of greenhouse gases, pollution due to toxic chemicals (heavy metals, antibiotics, hormones, etc.), among others. Nevertheless, in the current framework of resources and energy scarcity, organic wastes arise as an attractive resource that, if processed properly, can reduce the environment impacts associates to their management.
SYNECO - synergy of high quality green compost and green energy
Christophe Boogaerts
How can the compost industry optimally apply the available biomass resources for producing green energy and high quality soil improvers? What innovations in composting (adapted process in case of lower amounts of bulky material) are feasible, and what are the possibilities for anaerobic digestion of the fine fraction of green waste? Can we set standardized quality requirements for both end products (both compost and biomass streams)? Does the production of both high quality soil improver and biomass for green energy allow an economic optimization for the compost sector?
Greenhouse gas balances in biowaste treatment concepts with focus on compost and energy production
Dr.-Ing. Wolfgang Müller, Maria Ortner, Univ.-Prof. Dr.-Ing. Anke Bockreis
The greenhouse (GHG) gas and energy performance of bio-waste treatment plants was investigated for characteristic bio-waste treatment concepts: composting, biological drying for the production of biomass fuel fractions, and anaerobic digestion. In contrast to other Life-Cycle Assessment (LCA) studies the focus was put on the direct comparison of the latest process concepts and state of the art emission control measures. In addition the value of compost as a soil improver was included in the evaluation.
CO2 calculation tool for sustainable green waste management
Arjen Brinkmann
CO2 calculation tool for sustainable green waste management This presentation will outline key features of an innovative and practical CO2 calculation tool, which allows to quantify CO2-effects of green waste processing and of application of derived products. Unique about the tool is that it does not only calculate CO2-effects of energy applications (e.g. use of wood chips as fuel or), but also accounts for CO2-effects of material re-use, most notably compost products. Optionally, the tool can take into account CO2-effects of innovative, biobased products from green waste.
Handling of Excessive Process Water (EPW) from Mechanical Biological Treatment (MBT) of Municipal Waste
Dipl.-Ing. Paul Stopp, Dr.-Ing. Dirk Weichgrebe
The Mechanical Biological Treatment (MBT) of municipal waste is well established in many European countries. Depending on the water content of the input, excessive process water (EPW) is generated, which cannot be reused in the MBT process and must be disposed as liquid waste. With respect to the kinetics of the AD reactor, EPW of MBT plants is heavily loaded in particular with SS, COD, BOD, TN, TP etc.
Characterization of three industrial digestates and composts of digestates: Impacts of the composting step on the innocuousness of digestates
Marie Orvain - Jouault, Sabine Houot
The use of treatment methods involving Anaerobic-Digestion (AD) is expanding rapidly for a wide range of organic waste in France/Europe. In addition to biogas, AD generates digestate, a partially stabilized/sanitized product. In the majority of cases digestate is recycled for agricultural use, whether in composted form or not. However, little is known about its effect and impact on soils and the agro-system. In this context DIVAGRO study was initiated in partnership (ADEME/INRA/VERI) with the aim to study three digestates and Composts of Digestates (CD).
Improved method for recovery of organic solids from diluted swine manure in 3rd generation treatment system
Matias Vanotti, Patrick Hunt, Airton Kunz, Mark Rice
Solid-liquid separation of the raw manure increases the capacity of decision making and opportunities for treatment. The high-rate separation up-front using flocculants allows recovery of most of the organic compounds, which can be used for manufacture of high-quality compost materials. However, the use of flocculants and dewatering equipment is costly on high-volume, diluted wastewater. This project evaluated and demonstrated the viability of a third generation manure treatment technology for swine manure in the USA.
The investigation of respiration after mechanical biological treatment of municipal solid waste
Miklós Gulyás, Dr. András Béres, Ph.D. László Aleksza, Sándor Dér
The mechanical biological treatment (MBT) systems treat and process the mixed municipal solid waste and the residual of other waste treatment processes (e.g.: selective waste collection and sorting). The enrichment and assortment processes are conflated with biological treatments as composting in MBT. The primary aim of these treatments is to reduce the environmental hazards, volume, and mass of wastes, to stabilize the organic residues, and the retrieval of the recyclable waste materials (metals, refuse derived fuel-RDF).
Effect of biochar amendment during composting and compost storage on compost quality, N losses and P availability
Dr. ir. Bart Vandecasteele, Claudio Mondini, Tommy D’Hose, T. Sinicco
We tested the effect of adding 10% biochar (on a dry weight base) in a mixture of green waste and the organic fraction of municipal solid waste before processing in a composting plant.
Temporal and spatial distribution of organic waste physical properties along composting process
Celine Druilhe, Sylvie Huet, Anne Tremier, Grald Debenest
As an aerobic biological treatment, the composting process is influenced by the physical properties of organic waste. On one hand, material settlement, air permeability and free air space affect the aeration efficiency and the composting performance. On the other hand, the organic matter biodegradation during the process leads to a variation of material physical properties. The aim of this study was to investigate the time variation and the spatial distribution of the physical properties of a sludge and bulking agent mixture during its composting treatment.
Optimizing the composting parameters as a post-treatment of digestates of organic fraction of municipal solid waste
Zeng Yang, Patrick Dabert, Amaury de Guardia, Anne Tremier
There are increasing concerns about the management of digestates since the application of anaerobic digestion has grown spectacularly in recent years. Despite their good fertilizing properties, the digestates are often incompletely stabilized and concentrated in ammonium. Moreover, some pathogens can survive anaerobic digestion and complicate digestates valorization. Considering the drawbacks of direct utilization of digestates in agriculture, we studied the composting as a post-treatment of a typical digestate, the digestate of organic fraction of municipal solid waste.
Effects of the proportion of cotton gin as a bulking agent in the co-composting of the solid fraction of pig slurry
André M. Santos, Prof. Dr. Maria-Pilar Bernal
Composting can be a feasible technology for managing the pig slurry in surplus areas, producing a stabilized final product with good agricultural properties. The aim of this study is to assess the influence of the proportion of the bulking agent in the development of the composting process and in the quality of the compost obtained. For that, two static piles of about 2000 kg were built, using solid fraction of pig slurry (SPS) and cotton gin, in two proportions (SPS:bulking, v/v): 4:3(A) and 3:4(B). The Rutgers static composting system was used.
Composting of manure using olive mill wastewater for moisture control
Fenia Galliou, Dr. Michael Fountoulakis, T. Manios
Composting has been widely used for converting organic wastes into relatively stable products for use as fertiliser or soil additives. Moisture has been referred to as a critical factor in optimising composting systems because the decomposition of organic matters depends on the presence of water to support microbial activity.
In-situ co-composting in a bedded-pack dairy barn
Gábor Szántó, Andre J.A. Aarnink, Ir. Hendrik Jan van Dooren, Herman C. de Boer, Paul Galama
The currently developed Dutch bedded-pack barn is an integrated housing method for dairy cows. In this system, animal welfare, waste management and nutrient recovery considerations are merged for economic and ecological sustainability. The core design features the use of organic bedding and the application of an in-situ, co-composting process.
Valorisation Alternatives for Cheese Whey and Permeate in the Basque Country (Spain)
Marta Cebrian, Monica Gutierrez, Marta Rentería
Cheese whey is one of the most important pollutant generated by the dairy industry (more than 100 Million m3 /year in the EU). In the Basque Country (Spain) the small size and the geographical dispersion of the cheesemakers make difficult its effective management for energetic uses and other added-value applications. The aim of the Life+ VALORLACT project (Life 11 ENV/ES/639) is to demonstrate the technical, environmental and economic feasibility of different technologies such as membrane filtration and biogas production from cheese whey.
Investigation into the microbial potential of digestion towers, using no co-substrates in their input material, to prospectively increase biogas yields at sewage treatment plants
Andreas Walter, Univ.-Prof. Mag. Dr. Michael Probst, Mag.Dr. Christian Ebner, H. Insam
In sewage treatment plants (STPs), the anaerobic fermentation of sludge primarily aims at hygienic stabilization and reduction of mass. Recently however, a great potential has been seen regarding the addition of co-substrates in anaerobic treatment plants to increase biogas yields. The aim of this project was to compare the biotic and abiotic characteristics of STPs using or not using co-substrates in their digestion towers.
Study on biodegradability of wood residues
Dr Anne Menert, Dr. Mait Kriipsalu, Kaja Orupõld
Bark and timber residues (waste wood) mingled with soil, dirt and stones have so far been landfilled without any alternative use. The aim of this study was to propose a technology for biological treatment of this waste, enabling to produce quality compost.
Mechano-chemical treatment of amaranth waste to enhance anaerobic digestion
Terézia Varga, Dr. Ljudmilla Bokányi
Biogas production has a great importance in the energetic utilization of bio wastes. The seeds of the amaranth plant are utilized widely, but after removing the seeds, the leaves and stems appear as bio waste. In the meantime, because of the cellulosic structure, this waste is difficult to degrade both by aerobic and anaerobic degradation. The aim of the study was to investigate the effect of an activation process using stirred media mill reactor on the anaerobic biodegradation process.
Effect of paper fraction on the mesophilic anaerobic digestion of ofmsw. biogas and digestate evaluation
Joan Mata-Alvarez, J. Dosta
The effect of the percentage of paper fraction on the anaerobic digestion of Organic Fraction of Municipal Solid Waste (OFMSW) was evaluated in terms of biogas production and digestate stability. To reach this objective, the municipal waste from an anaerobic digestion plant was manually divided into 3 fractions: organic, paper and inert fraction.
Energy-based optimization of dry-state, sequential anaerobic digestion – Aerobic composting of sewage sludge
Beatrix Rózsáné Szűcs, M. Simon, Gábor Szántó, Dr. György Füleky
Sequential anaerobic digestion - aerobic composting processes are crucial for low carbon footprint utilization of sewage sludge. Treatment plants with sludge drying may benefit from such methods, provided that the two degradation processes are harmonized. A laboratory-scale trial was executed focusing on the energy relations of the two processes.
The artefacts map for waste treatment plants - working optimization for laboratories with fermentation units
Dipl.-Ing. Laura Weitze
The optimization of workflows ensures efficiency of processes. Especially in waste treatment for the warranty of same boundary conditions coordinated work processes are required. This includes the use of measurement technology, the use of evaluation methods and the exchange of knowledge between stakeholders. The artifacts map documented object-specific information of individual objects, connecting footpath and interaction patterns on the job. Therefore, different test people and their handling with artifacts should be observed in their everyday work.
Surface temperature analyses of sewage sludge based open air composting
Dr. Gergely Hunyadi, Csilla Juhász
The economical growth of the EU is followed by the growth of the amount of wastes which indicates needless cost, energy consumption, environmental damages, health problems and decreases life quality. The main goal of the EU is to transform the community to a “recycling society” through the decrease of these negative effects.
Optimisation of the starting up of swine manure methanisation at low temperature
Patrick Dabert, Kais Jaziri, Thomas Lendormi, Sophie Le Roux, Suzelle Barrington
All over the world there is a need for simple, robust and cheap methanisation processes to produce energy from animal waste. One solution is psychrophilic methanisation but it is limited by the long time required for microbial community adaptation at low temperature, which may last up to one year.
Biogas controlling system testing with poultry feather recycling
Lili Mézes
Feather is produced in large amounts as a waste in poultry slaughterhouses. Only 60-70% of the poultry slaughterhouse products are edible for human being. The high protein content of poultry feather - dried feather contains 91% proteins - makes it an excellent raw material for biogas production.
Preliminary evaluation of nutrient indices to estimate compost maturity
Rodrigo Ortega, Maria M. Martinez
One of the key compost maturity indicators is the C/N ratio. However, other ratios could be also used to estimate compost maturity and discriminate among compost types. Several nutritional indices are available within the plant nutrition literature. The most well-known is the Diagnosis and Recommendation Integrated System (DRIS) developed by Beaufils (1973). The DRIS involves the analysis of the results of plant analysis of a large number of samples of a specific crop. Samples coming from high yielding populations are considered as standards over which ratios of nutrient concentrations are developed and their coefficients of variation (CV) recorded. For a given sample, nutrient ratios are calculated and combined with those of the standard to determine DRIS Indices.
4- bio system (bioethanol-methane-compost-algae)
Prof. Marco de Bertoldi, Dr. Ulrike de Bertoldi - Schnappinger
The aim of this project is to perform and validate a new integrated system of 4 biological processes transforming biomass into: boiethanol, methane (thermal and electric energy), compost and algal biomass. The integrated biological system proposed in this process includes four different industrial microbial processes: 1. fermentation (bioethanol production), 2. anaerobic respiration (methane production), 3. aerobic respiration (compost production), 4. photosynthesis (algae production –biodiesel and proteins). A computerized system will connect the 4 industrial system in order to control in real time all the processes, starting material, transformation pathway and by products, giving the quantity and the quality of these parameters. All the parameters that affect the rate of the process and the quality of the end-products will be controlled and optimized by the same computer program.
Biogas from blackwater, lawn cuttings and grease trap residues in a district of Hamburg
Saskia Hertel, Stefan Deegener, PD Dr. Ing. habil. Ina Körner
The research project KREIS focuses on the combination of renewable energy generation, with innovative waste and wastewater management systems. The new system, developed by HAMBURG WASSER is called the “Hamburg Water Cycle®” (HWC) and is actually realized in the Hamburg city quarter “Jenfelder Au”. HWC contains a separate treatment of greywater and blackwater.
Catch crops rotation as a strategy to minimize nitrogen leaching and optimize manure anaerobic digestion performance
Viktor Riau, Laura Burgos, Assumpcio Anton Vallejo, August Bonmatí
Catch crops are grown as secondary crops after harvest of the main crop with the primary objective of binding nutrients in the soil. Additionally, the grown biomass can potentially be used as a feedstock source for bioenergy production, without interfering with food and fodder crops production. The main objective of this research was to assess the use of catch crops as an alternative to the common co-substrates used in manure- based biogas plants while maximizing biogas production.
Mapping composting bioaerosol dispersal using pine needles
Godon Jean Jacques, Amandine Galès, Nathalie Wéry, Eric Latrille, Jean-Philippe Steyer
Surface of leaves represent the largest surface on earth and contain one of the most abundance microbial communities. But leaf surfaces can also be considered as landing zone for microbes travelling by air. Based on the landing hypothesis, this work tries to draw a boundary around the composting site impacted by an emission punctual source of bioaerosols.
Assessment of home composting through stability indices and pathogen inactivation
Dr. Katia Lasaridi, A. Kyriacou, Dr. Konstadinos Abeliotis, Antonis Zorpas, Christina Chroni
Home composting can be considered as one of the most feasible options for bio-waste avoidance, granted that its end-product (the compost) fulfills certain quality criteria. In order to assess home composting process and compost quality, the integrated application of independent methodologies is needed. The present study reports on assessing compost quality through the evaluation of the stability levels and pathogen inactivation during home composting.
Methane potential from paper industry wastes and investigation of the methanogens involved
I. Franke-Whittle, Andreas Walter, H. Insam
The anaerobic digestion of organic wastes is a sustainable waste management strategy that is gaining significance due to the increasing costs of fossil fuels and the urgent need to mitigate anthropogenic global warming. Wastes generated by the paper industry are potential substrates for anaerobic digestion and bioenergy production. In this study we used an automatic methane potential test system (AMPTS) to investigate the biogas production potential from lignocellulosic and cellulosic paper industry wastes. The materials were subjected to both mesophilic and thermophilic treatment for 23 days, and various chemical (1% NaOH), mechanical (autoclave and ultrasonic) and enzymatic (ligninase, xylanase, cellulase mixture) pre-treatments of wastes were investigated. The methanogenic communities were investigated using DGGE and the ANAEROCHIP microarray.
Pilot-Scale anaerobic co-digestion of sewage sludge and olive mill wastewater for increased biogas production
Aggeliki Maragkaki, Dr. Michael Fountoulakis, Dr. Katia Lasaridi, T. Manios
Olive mill wastewater (OMW) is a highly polluting wastewater, caused by a high organic load and phenol content. These characteristics suggest that it may be suitable for increased biogas production in anaerobic treatment. In an attempt to improve biogas production co-digestion of sewage sludge and OMW was studied.
Conceptual design and implementation of an integrated system for organic solid waste treatment and by-products recovery – pMethan
Catarina Azevedo Borges, Carlos Augusto de Lemos Chernicharo
This paper addresses the conceptual design and implementation of a decentralized system for the proper management of organic solid waste from small generators, reducing the dependence on fossil fuels and the emission of GHG. The system, named pMethar, consists of a double-stage anaerobic system (a 20- m3 CSTR followed by a 0.9-m3 UASB reactor), a heat and power cogeneration unit (engine adapted to run on biogas), a solid-liquid separation device (adapted draining bags) and a thermal dryer that takes up the heat from the exhaustion gases of the cogeneration engine. Altogether, these units allow the generation of three valuable byproducts - biogas, bio-solids and reuse water – and zero waste, since all these products are used in benefit of the proper system.
The challenge of sampling and assessing odor emission from open-air composting windrows
Ph.D. Yael Laor
Odor has long been recognized as a critical issue for open-air windrow composting. Environmental regulations worldwide require the assessment of odor impact by means of dispersion models based on odor flux measurements; yet, collecting air emissions from compost piles, as well as from other area sources, is far from being standardized.
Comparison of the odour immissions from GORE® Cover systems and tunnel composting systems
Thorsten Wittemeier
In a comparative study, the odour immissions from three types of GORE® Cover systems were compared to those of a typical tunnel composting system with enclosed curing. The emissions were estimated based on own measurements as well as data from literature.
Comparison of the odour emissions and immissions from GORE® Cover systems and tunnel composting systems subject to the Federal Republic of Germany regulation
Sabine Barth
Own measurements of odour according to the GORE® Cover system and other conventional composting systems as well as data from literature have shown, that, as a function of technical configuration of the conventional composting system, the GORE® Cover system is able to give comparable or slightly better results related to the odour immissions in the environment of the plant. In this context it should be described what the relevant differences in both composting systems are.
Defects and efforts approach in the use of biofilter for waste gas purification
Renate Huebner
According to the IED and the so-called Brefs the exhaust of reactors and aerated rotting windrows from composting plants must be sent to an exhaust air treatment. A Biofilter is the most used method for the waste gas purification. Biofilters are reactors which are filled with a support media, for example an organic material like wood bark or chopped wood. The air contents are metabolized by microorganisms. To ensure that on the pure-gas side the required 500 OU/m³ are abided, a lot defaults for the planning, dimensioning and the operation are needed.
Greenhouse gases from composting and anaerobic digestion of biowaste in Germany
Prof. Dr.-Ing. Carsten Cuhls
Greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions from 12 to 120 kg CO2äq/Mg from composting and anaerobic digestion of biowaste are important for environmental impacts and results in Life Cycle Assessment (LCA). Poor operation can cause even higher emissions up to 400 kg CO2äq/Mg. The amount of CH4 and primary N2O differ in a range of factor 10 between different plants and is a result of variation in substrate (feedstock) and basic process parameters like: porosity, density, temperature, moisture, C:N ratio, O2 and pH-value.
Bioremediation of soils contaminated with Bonny light crude oil using Horse manure
Chindo Nwankwo, Edward I. Stentiford
Horse manure has appreciable nitrogen content. This made it attractive to be used as organic amendment for tomatoes (Solanum lycopersicum) grown in soils contaminated initially with Bonny light crude oil at 5, 7.5 and 10% (w/w).
Effect of sewage sludge compost application on the potential toxic elements of soil and plant in 2009-2012
Attila Tomócsik, Marianna Makádi, V. Orosz, J. Mészáros, Dr. György Füleky
In the spring of 2003 we established a small plot experiment with sewage sludge compost that contains 40% sewage sludge, 25% straw, 30% rhyolite and 5% bentonite. In 2006, 2009 and 2012 the experiment was re-treated. We ploughed into the soil 0, 9, 18 and 27 t ha-1 sewage sludge compost in five repetitions. We used spring crops and autumn cereals as corn, pea and triticale in crop rotation. Now we present some potential toxic elements (Co, Cu, Ni and Pb) content of soil samples collected from the 0-30 cm soil layer after harvesting, in 2009-2012.
Digestates origin and post-treatment influence their biological stability, potential nitrogen availability for plants and reactive nitrogen gas emissions
Amira Askri, Patricia Laville
The objective was to evaluate how digested wastes and post-digestion process determine the interest of digestates as organic amendments, source of nitrogen for plants and their potential environmental impacts through NH3 and N2O emissions. Digestates of different origins were sampled at various process steps: raw effluent, solid and liquid phases from phase separation, composted or dried solid phases and concentrates from membrane operation. All experiments were done in laboratory controlled conditions: potential nitrogen availability and organic matter stability during incubation of soil-digestate mixtures, NH3 emission using a modified wind-tunnel method and N2O emission using soil-digestate incubation during three months.
Improving barley utilization of n and p nutrients from soil amended with bio-digested cattle manure
Xiying Hao, Pam Caffyn, Virginia Nelson
Anaerobic digestion (AD) of animal manure has become an environmentally attractive technology to meet the world’s increasing demand for energy. Anaerobically digested manure (ADM) is a nitrogen-rich material and its application increases crop yields. We investigate barley response to the application of ADM. Two field sites located in Alberta Canada were used, Lethbridge (Southern) and St. Albert (Central).
Quality of liquid digestate as fertilizer – challenges for analytical procedures and regulations
Roald Sørheim, Espen Govasmark
During anaerobic digestion (AD), methane and CO2 are released during decomposition of organic matter. Consequently, the concentration of heavy metals and other possible harmful substances will increase on dry matter basis (DM). The concentrations of plant nutrients in the digestate will also increase. The quality of the feedstock is therefore important.
Biochar and Compost usage in Farmland for Carbon Sequestration with Mitigating GHG Emission
Shuji Yoshizawa, Shuzo Tanaka
By using biochar carbonized with biomass materials such as waste wood, bamboo and agricultural materials in farmland, carbon sequestration in the land soil for long period is expected. The analytical method of estimation of undegradable carbon (UDC) amount as follows: The total carbon amount (TOC) and the inorganic carbon (IOC) amount derived from carbonate in the soil of the farmland were measured with the solid sample combustion method.
Examination of zinc adsorption capacity of soils treated with differenet pyrolisis products
Gabriella Rétháti, Dr. György Füleky
During pyrolisis the high organic matter content materials (biomass originated organic matter) are heated in oxygen free (or limited amount of oxygen) environment. As a result, the solid phase that remains after eliminating the gases and liquid phase, is more stabile compared to the original product, it cannot be mineralized easily and its utilization is more beneficial in terms of climatic aspects. Furthermore, it can improve the soil structure, it can retain soil moisture and cations in the topsoil for long periods of time that are very important for plants.
Influence of biochar and digestate on pesticide decontamination
Santanu Mukherjee, Dr. Wolfgang Tappe, Dr. Lutz Weihermüller, Prof. Dr. Harry Vereecken, Dr. Peter Burauel
To overcome the problem of on farm point pollution originated from cleaning pesticide spaying equippment, easy and cheap on farm biopurification systems are under development. To optimize such systems the combination of soil amended with biochar and/or digestate will be tested. Therefore, a sophisticated sceening procedure based on respiration, degradation, sorption/ desorption, and leaching studies will be performed to identify the most appropriate mixture with respect to different pesticide classes (herbicides, fungicides, and mixtures).
Elution experiment on biochar-soil and biochar-compost systems to investigate the leaching dynamics of nutrients and possible toxic components
Zsuzsanna Üveges
Nowadays there is no doubt about the negative impact of the fertilizers and chemicals used in agriculture, and it is more and more urgent to increase sustainability by reducing the use of these agrochemicals. It can happen by recycling, reusing organic waste, food industrial by-products and farm organic residues as compost and biochar products. After transformation (pyrolysis and composting) of waste materials we can apply these compost and biochar products as fertilizers or soil improvers. However before agricultural applying we have to make sure of the environmental safety of these products.
Analysis of organic matter and heavy metal extraction kinetics of different pyrolized waste fractions
Imre Czinkota
The solid pirolyzis products contains almost all mineral components of original waste fractions, but a part of organic components are removed by liquid or gaseous fraction, during the thermodegradation. Heavy metal and organic contents of waste fractions or solid pirolyzis product are leached in the environment. To modeling the dissolving process, we investigated the samples by Hot Water Percolation (HWP) method. Five times 100 cm3 extract samples were collected from six waste fractions, in original and 500 and 350 °C pirolyzed forms. We measured the heavy metal concentration of all samples by ICP and UV-VIS spectra by spectrofotometer.
A new organic matter fractionation methodology applied on a large panel of organic wastes: accessibility characterization for bioaccessibility prediction and process modelling improvement
Julie Jimenez, Quentin Aemig, Sabine Houot, Jean-Philippe Steyer, Prof. Dominique Patureau
The huge amount of organic wastes can be treated through biological processes such as anaerobic digestion or composting for their energetic and agricultural valorization. In order to predict the fate of the organic matter in these processes, knowledge on biodegradability and bioaccessibility is crucial. However, in the literature there is a lack of protocol to assess organic matter bioaccessibility. Recently, a methodology based on chemical sequential extractions combined with fluorescence spectroscopy has been developed for sewage sludge. A successful correlation with bioaccessibility was shown. However, this technique was based on alkaline extractions which target proteins and humic acids and was not sufficient for the carbohydrates or lignocellulosic substrates characterization.
Organic matter transformation drives the fate of organic micropollutants during anaerobic digestion and composting of sludge
Quentin Aemig, Valerie Bergheaud, Valérie Dumeny, Prof. Dominique Patureau
In France, sewage sludge is very often recycled on cropped soils as fertilizer substitute. To avoid impacts related to organic micropollutant input in soil, it is necessary to ensure their dissipation from the sludge during the stabilization processes like anaerobic digestion and composting. The behaviour of organic micropollutants (13 polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, nonylphenols, 2 antibiotics (sulfamethoxazole and ciprofloxacin), 1 hormone (β-estradiol) and 1 anti-inflammatory drug (ibuprofen)) was experimentally studied during lab-scale anaerobic digestion followed by composting. At the same time, the fate of organic matter was studied during the treatments. To go further on the comprehension of organic micropollutants dissipation mechanisms, the organic matter was chemically fractionated according to its accessibility.
Digestate and Compost qualities focus on nitrogen and organic matter respective brings to crops and to cultivated soils
Jean-Luc Martel, M. Allain
CIRSEE team contributes for Suez Environnement and in collaboration with different public and private partners to the collaborative R&D program DIVA that is partially financed by ANR and that is dedicated to the characterization and agricultural recovery of different digestates produced in France. CIRSEE participates to the task “agronomic characterization” that is led by INRA and realizes different laboratory and “on land” tests in order to precise and compare the agronomic value of different organic products : raw digestates, composted digestates as Methacompost or simple composts produced from domestic or agricultural waste.
Increasing the organic matter content of sandy soils using sewage sludge compost
Marianna Makádi, Attila Tomócsik, Tibor Aranyos, Ph.D. Tamás András Szegi
The growing quantity of wastes increases the need for environmentally sound treatment and utilization of these materials. Sewage sludge is a continuously formed organic waste. Its treatment and utilization depend on the quality of the sludge. If it contains high quantity of nutrients and the organic and inorganic toxic materials and elements are present in low quantity, the sewage sludge could be composted and utilized in the agriculture. In our long-term sewage sludge compost experiment 0, 9, 18 and 27 t ha-1 compost is added to the soil in every third year. Compost is made from sewage sludge, straw, rhyolite and bentonite therefore it is suitable for improving the acidic sandy soil in the Nyírség region of Hungary.
Effect of Intensity and Time of Aeration on Agrochemical Properties of Extracts from Vermicompost
Dr. Ales Hanc, Pavel Svehla, Pavel Tlustoš
Vermicomposting is a completely environmentally friendly technology which converts biowaste to a value-added product. Extracts from vermicompost can be applied to plant surfaces and soils in ways not possible or economically feasible with solid vermicompost. The aim of this work was to determine the influence of aeration intensity and time of extraction on the agrochemical properties of aqueous extracts from two types of vermicomposts. Vermicomposts were made from horse manure (M) and apple pomace (P) waste.
Effects of different biochars and combined biochar and anaerobic digestate utilization on rye-grass and soil properties in laboratory model experiment
Miklós Gulyás, Prof. Dr. Marta Fuchs, Annamaria Holes, Ph.D. Tamás András Szegi, István Kocsis
Recycling of organic wastes and preparation of added value products such as biochar or anaerobic digestate are challenges for a sustainable agriculture. Utilization of biochars to improve soil fertility and to mitigate global climate change is a popular research area. Residual of anaerobic digestion can be used as soil amendment as well, since it contains high amount of different macro-, and micronutrients mainly in water soluble form. Combination of digestate and biochars can cause various interactions, between digestate-biochar and soil system.
Effect of compost source and soil type on canola yield and nutrient uptake from calcareous and acid soils under greenhouse conditions
Xiying Hao
Composting is an alternative manure management strategy with lower transportation cost than fresh manure. This study investigates the effect of compost applications on canola yield and nutrient uptake under controlled greenhouse conditions.
Vegetable crop residues as feedstock for composting and silage: collection efficiency and product quality
Dr. ir. Bart Vandecasteele, Jarinda Viaene, Laura Agneessens, Tomas Van de Sande, Stefaan De Neve
The crop residues of vegetables are important for nutrient and organic matter cycling. However, these residues often may lead to nitrogen leaching risks. This study investigates the feasibility of removing crop residues, followed by composting or ensiling as a means to reduce N leaching losses.
Estimation of biologically available heavy metal content of composts by various extraction methods and ICP-OES multielemental detection
György Heltai, Ph.D. László Aleksza
The different fractionation protocols may offer different chemical information on biologically available element content of compost, however, only to the BCR sequential extraction scheme is available a sediment type certificated reference material for validation the fractionation procedure. For soils, composts CRM samples are available only for single step extraction or digestion procedures.
Pelletized compost can be a superior alternative to phosphate fertilizer compared to bulk compost
Yusuke Arakawa
Manure is used as fertilizer and for soil amendment if handled appropriately, although it is the leading source of agricultural pollution if mismanaged. Because of the high water content, long-range haulage is uneconomical. Therefore, manure is mostly applied at high dose, close to the source, thereby diminishing its potential in soil amendment. Composting and pelletization facilitate manure exports, including storage, handling, and transport, for off-farm use and field application.
Effect of compost treatments on the growth of the strain field area of apple trees, and on the number of fruits per tree
Anita Szabo, Andrea Balla Kovács, Dr. Vágó Imre
The effect of different compost doses on the nutrient contents of the soil (in depth of 0-30) were measured in an apple orchards (organic and integrated). Growth of the strain field area of different apple species (Golden Delicious and Pinova) and the number of fruits per tree were determined (2010-2012).
Use of compost from grape pomace as organic amendment for recoverying a decayed pear (Pyrus communis cv Packam’s Triumph) ORCHARD
Hugo Poblete, Maria M. Martinez, Rodrigo Ortega
During two growing seasons, an experiment was performed to evaluate the effects of mature compost from grape pomace on the recovery of a pear (Pyrus communis L.) orchard. Two treatments (T1: control, T2: Integrated plant nutrition, IPN) were compared. The IPN consisted on the application of 20 ton/ha of compost, together with chemical fertilization of 70 kg N/ha, 20 kg P2O5/ha and 66 kg K2O/ha; the control treatment included only chemical fertilization.
Crop response to alternative organic treatments
Natasha Mortimer, Dr. Louise A. Fletcher
The aim of the research is to assess the effects of novel wastes, composts and biochar on commercial arable and horticultural crops, and the impact on soil quality. The research will focus on determining the benefits of replacing inorganic fertilisers with novel wastes and compost (such as chicken manure and olive mill waste (OMW)) along with the carbon sequestering properties of biochar.
Sensitivity analysis of a dynamic soil-plant model for simulations of fate of pollutants after repeated applications of amendment on agricultural soils
Agathe Revallier, Jeanne Serre, Philippe Cambier, Stefan Trapp
In 2009, Veolia Environnement Research and Innovation, the Institut National de la Recherche Agronomique and the Technical University of Denmark have started a large research cooperation to develop a mathematical model dedicated to the assessment of the fate of organic substances and metals in agricultural soils, after repeated applications of Residual Organic Products (ROP, e.g : sludge, composts). This dynamic model predicts the concentrations of substances in different compartments of the agricultural ecosystem and fluxes in groundwater over time, as a function of approximately a hundred input (physicochemical properties and concentration of substances, environmental conditions, crop characteristics).
When product status is not enough – the development of a UK Renewable Fertilizer Matrix
Dr. David Tompkins
The UK standardised its approaches to ‘end of waste’ for compost in 2007, and digestate in 2009. Both are now well-established, covering around 50% of the UK’s 3.5 million tonnes of compost and 20% of the 1.4 million tonnes of digestate that were produced in 2012.
Define waste criteria for the production of high quality compost
Antonis Zorpas, Dr. Katia Lasaridi
The Waste Framework Directive 2000/98 (WFD) contains specific provisions to define end-of-waste criteria (EWC). The objective of EWC is to remove the administrative loads of waste legislation for safe and high-quality waste materials, thereby facilitating recycling. The objective is achieved by requiring high material quality of recyclables, promoting product standardisation and quality assurance, and improving harmonisation and legal certainty in the recyclable material markets.
Development of sustainable potting soil based on green compost and other organic recycled materials
Barbara Hoekstra
Although peat is a major component of potting soil, its use is questioned due to ecological constraints. In addition, there is a need for better valorization of green waste compost in Belgium and an increasing consumer awareness of sustainable garden products. Therefore, experiments were set up to develop a sustainable high-quality all-purpose potting soil for the consumer market.
Wood ash improves composting processes and end products
Marina Fernández-Delgado Juárez, I. Franke-Whittle, H. Insam
The use of biomass as a renewable energy source results in the production of ashes that are often landfilled. This is a waste of nutrients like P, Ca, Mg, K, and a number of micronutrients. It is known that wood ash can be used as fertilizer or lime replacement, as well as an additive in composting. This is owed to its ability to buffer pH and reduce compost malodours. Nevertheless, the Austrian Compost Ordinance allows a maximum admixture of 2% ash.
Digestates main characteristics and residual biodegradability: influence of waste origin and management of the digestion plant
Anne Trémier
Digestates have to be properly valorized as soil improvers or organic fertilisers in order to ensure good environmental and economic performance of the whole anaerobic digestion treatment scheme. Nevertheless, determinants of the digestates quality and digestates residual biodegradability have raised little interest even as they determine their conditions of storage, use or post-processing. The aim of the present study was thus to propose determinants of digestates quality and to assess their residual biodegradability and its impact in terms of further storage or post-treatment.
GLOCAL – An ecosystem-based business model
Teresa Gea, Dr. Antoni Sánchez
A potentially game-changing business model is currently being trialled on the island of Mallorca. Ecover, Forum for the Future, GICOM, Daniel Wahl, the University of the Balearic Islands, the local industry Clusters and several local entrepreneurs are working together to pilot a distributed manufacturing model that: • produces locally but draws on the global R&D knowledge held by Ecover • uses local bio-based resources that would otherwise be considered as waste
Protease production from organic residues by SSF and their potential uses
Julianna Abraham, Teresa Gea, A. Sanchez
An environmental-friendly process is proposed in this work to reduce the negative impact of the increasing agro industrial residues due to the faster growth of the world population. It consists on the valorization of nitrogen-rich local residues, such as soya fiber, hair waste and coffee husk, by solid-state fermentation (SSF) to obtain proteases.
Recovery of nutrients from Organic Fraction of Municipal Sólid Waste (OFMSW) in the Ecoparc 2 of Montcada i Reixac, Barcelona: alternatives to the current process
August Bonmatí
Recovery of nutrients from the OFMSW is a relevant topic as evidenced by the European initiative ”End of Waste”. Following this guideline, the Ecoparc 2 of Montcada i Reixac, belonging to the Metropolitan Area of Barcelona, submits the OFMSW to anaerobic digestion and then the digestate is separated mechanically, fisrt by pressing and then by centrifugation.
Design and validation of an Action Plan to produce animal feed vegetable flour from food waste
David San Martin, Jaime Zufia
Almost three quarters of vegetable by-products generated from food industry and retail trade end up in dumps. However, they can be valued as raw material for animal feed, if they are managed under appropriate conditions. The Clean-Feed project (www.cleanfeed.org) is funded by European LIFE+ program and Basque Government. The aim of this study is to reduce up to 70% of vegetable wastes generated in the Basque Country.
Quality Assurance of compost and digestate products in Flanders, a safeguard for product quality
Wim Vanden Auweele
The biological treatment of biowaste through composting and anaerobic digestion in the Flemish Region, is subject to the Flemish Regulation on Sustainable Materials Management and Waste, setting out the criteria for different waste streams to obtain the status of a product. For organic fertilizers or soil improvers, the waste treatment plants must obtain a quality certificate, based on a system of independent quality assurance and certification.
Examining the VBNC induction and regrowth in E.coli and Salmonella exposed to a simulated thermophilic condition of a composting pile
Pulat Isobaev, Dr. Daryl McCartney, Norman Neumann
The survival and regrowth of pathogenic microorganisms in low numbers during thermophilic composting has been reported. The microbial viable but not culturable (VBNC) state has been viewed as the possible cause. Pathogens in VBNC can overcome heat stresses during composting and revert to normal when optimum conditions are regained. The objectives of this study were to investigate if and how soon the indigenous to compost matrix E. coli sp. and Salmonella sp. would induce the VBNC state upon exposure to thermophilic conditions; and whether the VBNC state in these organisms could be reverted.
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