© IWWG International Waste Working Group (10/2007)
Conventional H2 production methods are based on physico-chemical processes, such as waterelectrolysis or chemical cracking of hydrocarbons; however, in the perspective of reducing fossil fuels use and combustion, H2 production via biological processes is attractive. Biohydrogen can be generated by three microbial groups, namely (1) cyanobacteria which decompose water into hydrogen and oxygen in the presence of light energy by photosynthesis; (2) photosynthetic purple non-sulfur bacteria, which are heterotrophic microorganisms producing H2 under anaerobic conditions and in presence of light energy; (3) fermentative bacteria, primarily Clostridia, which produce H2 through dark fermentation.

© IWWG International Waste Working Group (10/2007)
The re-use of spent water is an important issue to reduce the use of potable water in the face of restrictions on natural water availability. Municipal wastewater treated in centralised wastewater treatment plants is usually discharged after treatment without further reuse. Also, huge amounts of drinking water are often wasted for irrigation and other purposes where lower grade water would be sufficient. The required quality of reclaimed water depends on the intended application. An elevated nutrient content in recycled wastewater may lead to advantages in irrigation in order to save fertiliser and simultaneously reduce the total nutrient discharge to water bodies (Bixio et al., 2006). (Session A14: Integrated decentralized solid waste and sewage management (I))

Apraitz Wastewater Treatment Station (Plant Report)
© Infoenviro (3/2007)
Apraitz Wastewater Treatment Station, in Elgoibar, in the Spanish Basque Country, inaugurated on March 9, 2007, treats the wastewater for 90,027 equivalent inhabitants in the townships of Mallabia, Ermua, Eibar, Soraluze and Elgoibar, and soon, Mendaro.

Tertiary Treatment at the La Gavia Wastewater Treatment Plant, Madrid (Plant Report)
© Infoenviro (3/2007)
The design of the La Gavia Wastewater Treatment Plant, inaugurated in June of 2005, contemplated the incorporation of a water reuse system in response to the objectives set in the AGUA Programme of the Ministry of Environment. To that end, space was reserved and the necessary pre-installations were taken into account in the original works.

Arroyo de la Miel Wastewater Treatment Station (Plant Report)
© Infoenviro (3/2007)
The Arroyo de la Miel Wastewater Treatment Plant, located in the municipal area of Benalmádena (Málaga), is designed to treat a flow of 14,600,000 m3/year and produce 3,650,000 m3/year of reused water, to service a population of 275,000 equivalent inhabitants. Currently, the plant is in trials but will soon be in full operation.

Saving potentials at the purification of landfill leachate
© Wasteconsult international (12/2006)
How is it possible to optimise a functioning and stable working biological leachate treatment plant without considerable reconstruction measures but with generating extensive economies regarding the operating costs amounting to a 5-digit sum (Euro). State-of-the-art regarding the biological nitrogen elimination in the area of the communal purification of waste water and landfill leachate is the combination of nitrification and denitrification accompanied by a more or less (cost-)intensive application of an external carbon source and corresponding production of a surplus activated sludge.

Exploitation of an agroindustrial wastewater: from OMW to biofuels Premium
© IWWG International Waste Working Group (11/2006)
Owing to acidity, phenolic compounds, suspended substances, high organic content and phytotoxicity, the wastewater coming from the oil mills (OMW) is considered as one of the most polluting agroindustrial effluents.

Development of Material-Flow-Oriented Concepts for Waste Water Systems Based On ZERO EMISSION
© European Compost Network ECN e.V. (9/2006)
SUMMARY: Today the domestic water industry is confronted with a lot of problems like high costs, lack of sustainability and ecological deficiencies which are caused by linear material-flows in the conventional system of waste water treatment. One major deficiency of this one-sided system is the production of waste.

Analytical Methods for the Determination of the Biological Activity of Organic Biomass
© European Compost Network ECN e.V. (9/2006)
SUMMARY: Determination of the biological stability of waste samples is presented for selected methods in regarding to the verification of biodegradability, which are applied at the Institute of Waste Resource Management of the Hamburg University of Technology.

Recovery and Recycling Paths of Biodegradable Polymer Packaging - Case Study Kassel City -
© Bauhaus-Universität Weimar - Professur für Abfallwirtschaft (4/2005)
As a result of intensive sponsorship and both scientific and commercial research efforts, biologically degradable polymers (BDP) have been developed in the last few years to be ready for practical utilisation. The application of BDP for packaging purposes was considered to be the most practical area for their use.

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