LIFE CYCLE ASSESSMENT OF MANAGEMENT OF APC RESIDUES FROM WASTE INCINERATION
© IWWG International Waste Working Group (10/2007)
Incineration of municipal solid waste (MSW) generates solid residues consisting of combustion products, unburned waste and products resulting from treatment of stack gases. The most important products are bottom ash and air pollution control residues (APC), in which fly ash is included. The management options available for the solid residues are utilization and landfilling. After pretreatment and ageing, bottom ashes are often utilized, predominantly in roads or construction works (Astrup, 2007). In contrast to the bottom ashes, APC residues require a much more comprehensive treatment to meet Waste Acceptance Criteria for landfilling. This is due to their high levels of soluble salts and heavy metals which can potentially leach causing environmental damages. Also the content of dioxins in the residues constitutes an environmental threat.

THE INFLUENCE OF CALCIUM HYDROXIDE INJECTION ON WASHING PROCESS OF FLY ASH
© IWWG International Waste Working Group (10/2007)
Incineration technology is the most widely used technology in Japan to dispose municipal solid waste (MSW). In fiscal year 2004, 77.5 percent of 50.59 million tons of MSW was incinerated (Ministry of the Environment of Japan, 2006). Incineration residue such as fly ash and bottom ash is generated during incineration process.

USE OF BOTTOM ASHES AS INTERMEDIATE COVER IN MSW LANDFILLS IN ORDER TO REDUCE EMISSIONS OF ODOROUS COMPOUNDS
© IWWG International Waste Working Group (10/2007)
MSW currently collected in France represents more than 20 million tons per year and incineration plants treats more than 40% of the MSW. The amount of bottom ashes produced annually in France by the 120 incineration plants of municipal and assimilated waste reached approximately 3 million tons (Kaibouchi, 2004), which represent 25 to 30% of the total of hidden waste (Tirnoveanu Radu, 2004).

In-Situ-Hydraulic Soil Washing of a Diesel/HEL-Damage on a Tank Farm Site
© Lehrstuhl für Abfallverwertungstechnik und Abfallwirtschaft der Montanuniversität Leoben (11/2006)
The tank farm is situated in the industrial area at the Linz Harbour. Due to its use, a widely ranging soil - and groundwater contamination with diesel and heating oil “extra light” (HEL) happened prior to construction of the downstream hydroelectric powerplant in 1979.

Soilremediation by “Enhanced Vapour Extraction”
© Lehrstuhl für Abfallverwertungstechnik und Abfallwirtschaft der Montanuniversität Leoben (11/2006)
On the site of a chemical industry company, a considerable pollution was detected in 1981.

Operational Experience of the site adapted AR&B System Brunn a. G., Austria
© Lehrstuhl für Abfallverwertungstechnik und Abfallwirtschaft der Montanuniversität Leoben (11/2006)
Brownfield development in urban areas, requires innovative environmental remediation and protection solutions to allow the reuse of contaminated sites.

Remediation and Excavation of the Hazardous Waste Landfill Site of Kölliken/Switzerland
© Lehrstuhl für Abfallverwertungstechnik und Abfallwirtschaft der Montanuniversität Leoben (11/2006)
Between 1978 and 1985 about 375,000 m3 of hazardous waste was deposited in a disused clay quarry in Kölliken (Switzerland).

Biogas Vienna: Energetic utilization of organic waste by wet anaerobic digestion
© Lehrstuhl für Abfallverwertungstechnik und Abfallwirtschaft der Montanuniversität Leoben (11/2006)
Organic waste from municipal and industrial sources like source separated biowaste, food and kitchen waste, packaged food waste, residues from the food and beverage processing industry is a valuable energy source which can be used by a wet anaerobic digestion technology to produce biogas.

The VDI 2343 guideline gives recommendations for the concerned parties
© Lehrstuhl für Abfallverwertungstechnik und Abfallwirtschaft der Montanuniversität Leoben (11/2006)
In Germany on 24th March 2006 the most relevant regulations of the German Act on Electrical and Electronic Equipment (ElektroG) came into force.

Hazardous waste management in Chile: novel challenges for a new regulation
© Lehrstuhl für Abfallverwertungstechnik und Abfallwirtschaft der Montanuniversität Leoben (11/2006)
The new "Hazardous Waste Management Regulation" was published in the Official Newspaper of the Chilean Republic on June 12th, 2003, being in force 365 days after its publication (i.e., June 12th, 2004).

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