Europe’s Air Becomes More and More Expensive: The Integration of Maritime Transport into the European Emission Trading Scheme
© Lexxion Verlagsgesellschaft mbH (8/2012)
Europas Geduld mit der internationalen Seeschifffahrtsorganisation neigt sich dem Ende zu: Da bisher auf internationaler Ebene eine Einigung auf eine verbindliche Reduktion der Treibhausgasemissionen des Schifffahrtssektors nicht in Sicht ist, plant die Europäische Union die Einführung eigener Maßnahmen. Die wahrscheinliche Option ist der Einbezug in das europäische Emissionshandelssystem, so wie es bereits für den Flugverkehr seit Januar 2012 der Fall ist. Dies würde die internationale Seeschifffahrt vor finanzielle, technische, und administrative Herausforderungen stellen – nicht nur in Europa. Ein solches Handelssystem wirft darüber hinaus, je nach Anwendungsbereich und Ausgestaltung, rechtliche Fragen im Hinblick auf seine Vereinbarkeit mit Völkerrecht auf, insbesondere bezüglich Vorschriften des Seerechts, des internationalen Handelsrechts und der Legalität extraterritorialer Maßnahmen.

Reducing Air Pollution from Marine Vessels to Mitigate Arctic Warming: Is it Time to Target Black Carbon?
© Lexxion Verlagsgesellschaft mbH (6/2012)
The effects of climate change are being felt all over the world, resulting in flooding, sea level rise, changing rainfall patterns, temperature increases and so on, and this impact is considered to be twice as strong in the Arctic. When assessing current mitigating efforts and their preliminary results, scientists point out that the 2 °C target will not be met, let alone the more stringent target of 1.5°C. There is a clear need for a new binding, more stringent global climate agreement, but that takes time, time which we do not have. Particularly for the Arctic, fast action is urgently needed and could possibly be achieved by targeting black carbon, a short-lived climate forcer with a possibly great potential to slow down climate change. This paper will discuss, in short, the current scientific knowledge on black carbon, with a particular focus on the Arctic. Pointing to shipping as one of the large contributors, this article will address current efforts within the International Maritime Organization to deal with black carbon.

Emissions of VOCs during municipal biowaste and sludge composting in Pilot scale reactors
© European Compost Network ECN e.V. (6/2012)
During the composting process, organic matter is mainly transformed by aerobic reactions into a stabilized product.This process involves the production and release of some odorous gases to the atmosphere. There are far fewerpublished data on VOCs and odours emissions of composting process than emissions of others gases, such as NH3, N2Oor CH4 (Mallard (2005)). This article aims to evaluate VOCs and odours emissions during biowaste and sludgecomposting and to compare these emissions regarding different aeration conditions. Further Authors: P. Lavaud - Veolia Environnement Recherche & Innovation A. Covez - Veolia Environnement Recherche & Innovation R. Lecarpentier - Veolia Environnement Recherche & Innovation M. Jolly - Veolia Environnement Recherche & Innovation

Life cycle assesement of pig slurry Treatment technologies
© European Compost Network ECN e.V. (6/2012)
Animal manure is one of the major agricultural wastes and its management is associated with negative impacts onglobal warming, acidification and eutrophication of natural ecosystems.These impacts are accentuated because some areas in Europe receive excessive amounts of animal manure. These socalledhotspot areas are characterized by high livestock densities and insufficient land for manure utilisation, resultingin phosphorus and nitrogen surpluses in these areas, with associated risks for losses to the environment. In other areas, the nutrients from manure are insufficient to maintain production, leading to a need to apply mineral fertilizers. Further Author: L. S. Jensen - University of Copenhagen

GHG emissions during the composting process as a function of the aeration strategy
© European Compost Network ECN e.V. (6/2012)
Composting is an aerobic thermophilic biodegradation process that requires oxygen to stabilize the organic wastes and optimal moisture content for the microorganisms development (Haug, 1993). Several parameters as C/N ratio, material porosity, moisture content and aeration rules for the oxygen supply must be analyzed and controlled to optimize the process development. Frequently, aeration is defined as the most important factor for the process performance. Further Author: C. Maulini

The Role of ICAO in Regulating the Greenhouse Gas Emissions of Aircraft
© Lexxion Verlagsgesellschaft mbH (3/2012)
This article explores the role of the International Civil Aviation Organization (ICAO) in regulating civil aircraft engine emissions in the age of climate change. The Kyoto Protocol allocates authority for international aviation emissions to ICAO, but the organisation has failed to provide effective regulation over the past fourteen years. This article examines why ICAO was granted such authority, what might account for ICAO’s failure and explores the role of ICAO in the future. It argues that the ICAO should not be the sole regulatory authority for the aviation industry, but that it has an important contribution to make in terms of technical expertise and auditing capacity.

Synergistic Effects by Thermal and Biological Waste Treatment Facilities at Integrated Sites
© TK Verlag - Fachverlag für Kreislaufwirtschaft (9/2011)
the protagonists of conventional waste disposal have faced off against their opponents who wanted to recycle materials exclusively. In the mean time, there are many reasons to abandon these contrary positions and think about synergies between the concepts of thermal and material recycling processes. The latest impulse for this is surely the most recent legal development in the European Union in accordance with national objectives of having a waste management system that is more directed at the protection of the climate and resources.

Better ROI and Lower Emissions – Smart Decisions Based on Energy Efficiency Facts Reduce the Emissions and Improve Your OPEX –
© TK Verlag - Fachverlag für Kreislaufwirtschaft (9/2011)
Today`s world has many obligations; the energy consumption in general must be reduced, the emissions as per Kyoto protocol should be reduced to the 2005 level and there should be a shift from coal fired and nuclear power plants into renewable energy sources. Also the management in industry starts to request energy savings to compensate the high energy costs. Now, as by the end of 2011, the new ISO 50,001 Energy Management System shall be implemented for systematically saving the precious energy while reducing the greenhouse gas emissions. The world needs will soon be fundamentally changed. This ambitious goal must be achieved in less than 20 years. Each one of us is asked every day to save energy and resources and it all depends and starts with each human being.

Ensuring New Finance and Real Emission Reduction: A Critical Review of the Additionality Concept
© Lexxion Verlagsgesellschaft mbH (6/2011)
This paper aims to inform the ongoing international climate change negotiations by examining the main arguments underlying the debate surrounding additionality of emission reductions as well as additionality of finance under the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change and the Kyoto Protocol. The main methods of testing additionality will also be discussed. This paper is organized in three parts. The first part summarizes the history of financial additionality, the second looks at ways to test the additionality of emission reductions. The third part concludes with proposals on how to establish clear criteria for testing additionality with the aim of reducing the controversy that surrounds the concept so as to realize its implementation in the long-term.

Optimization of MBT considering Energy Efficiency and Protection of Resources and Climate
© Wasteconsult international (5/2011)
In 18 out of 46 MBTs in Germany biological treatment of organic-containing fine fractions takes place with the aim of achieving the deposition criteria exclusively through aerobic rotting. Thus energy potentials contained in the fine fractions are not utilized.

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