Defining the Legal Elements of Benefit Sharing in the Context of REDD+
© Lexxion Verlagsgesellschaft mbH (12/2014)
How to share the benefits from REDD+ implementation is an important consideration for any country. For benefit sharing mechanisms designed to operate at the national level (often referred to as Benefit Distribution Systems), subnational level or project level, common structural elements will exist. In legal terms, this article refers to these as the legal elements of benefit sharing. From a legal perspective, the key questions to consider with respect to benefit sharing include how benefits are defined, how benefits are allocated (and to whom), howbenefits are distributed, and howto ensure the accountability of benefit sharing arrangements (such as measures to ensure public participation and transparency). In order to assist stakeholders to deconstruct and organise themany different issues discussed within benefit sharing dialogues, this article offers a conceptual model of benefit sharing from a legal perspective, identifying and describing the different structural elements underpinning benefit sharing arrangements at any level of REDD+ implementation.

Two Case Studies on Landfill Mining: Kössen (Austria), Bishkek (Kyrgyzstan)
© Lehrstuhl für Abfallverwertungstechnik und Abfallwirtschaft der Montanuniversität Leoben (11/2014)
The former landfill “Auwirtslacke” is located in Kössen, a Tyrolean municipality at the German border. It was operated for all kinds of municipal solid waste between end of World War I and the mid 1970s without whichever emission control.

Innovative Monitoring Tool for Emission Evaluation
© Lehrstuhl für Abfallverwertungstechnik und Abfallwirtschaft der Montanuniversität Leoben (11/2014)
The measurement and evaluation of fugitive and point-source greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions, in particular methane (CH4) emissions, from biological waste treatment plants (e.g. composting facilities, biodigesters) and landfills, are an important prerequisite to demonstrate compliance with requested limit values. Traditionally, small-scale methods (e.g. chamber technique, funnel or tunnel measurement) have been used in order to estimate methane emissions from e.g. landfills.

Limiting Climate Change by Fostering Net Avoided Emissions
© Lexxion Verlagsgesellschaft mbH (3/2014)
Reducing Fossil Fuel Supply and Emissions from Fuel Exploitation

Does the Climate Regime Need New Types of Mitigation Commitments?
© Lexxion Verlagsgesellschaft mbH (12/2013)
Apart from the much-debated question of what legal form the 2015 climate agreement is supposed to have, another core issue is the substantive content of countries’ commitments. While the climate regime has so far mostly been based on emission targets, literature has identified a broad range of other possible types of mitigation commitments, such as technology targets, emission price commitments, or commitments to specific policies and measures (PAMs). The nationally appropriate mitigation actions (NAMAs) submitted by developing countries under the Cancún Agreements also show a broad range of different forms of participation.

Climate Protection - opportunity to ensure financial sustainability of solid waste management in developing countries
© Eigenbeiträge der Autoren (12/2013)
The vast majority of solid waste management (SWM) projects implemented in developing, emerging and transition countries (DETC) envisage the disposal of residual waste on a sanitary landfill. This approach leads in most cases to an increase of greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. By implementing advanced SWM systems DETC could lower their national greenhouse gas balance by 10-15%.

Climate Engineering Research: A Precautionary Response to Climate Change?
© Lexxion Verlagsgesellschaft mbH (6/2013)
In the face of dire forecasts for anthropogenic climate change, climate engineering is increasingly discussed as a possible additional set of responses to reduce climate change’s threat. These proposals have been controversial, in part because they - like climate change itself - pose uncertain risks to the environment and human well-being. Under these challenging circumstances of potential catastrophe and risk-risk trade-off, it is initially unclear to what extent precaution is applicable. We examine what precautionis and is not, and make a prima facie case that climate engineering may provide means to reduce climate risks. When precaution is applied to the currently pertinent matter of small to moderate scale climate engineering field tests, we conclude that precaution encourages them, despite their potential risks.

Where Two Worlds Collide
© Lexxion Verlagsgesellschaft mbH (6/2013)
Emission Reduction Purchase Agreements, the Evolution of the Dialectic Relationship of Private Contracts and International Environmental Law at the Heart of the Global Climate Regime

A Decentralised Approach to Emissions Reductions
© Lexxion Verlagsgesellschaft mbH (4/2013)
This paper evaluates whether border tax adjustments (BTAs) might be a more successful tool for achieving pollution abatement than the current Kyoto Protocol framework, which was recently extended to 2020. To examine this question, the paper does two things. First, it seeks to understand the specific collective action problem plaguing pollution abatement by employing Elinor Olstrom’s framework for disaggregating common goods. Second, the paper matches the disaggregated common good with both the BTA and Kyoto Protocol governance structures. The matching exercise builds on research that suggests for a regime tasked with commons governance to function, there must be an appropriate fit between its institutional structure and the specific collective action problem it seeks to overcome. The paper’s conclusions are twofold. First, Kyoto is failing because its structure is ill-equipped to combat the specific collective action problem facing pollution abatement, as defined by the disaggregated nature of the common good produced. Second, a BTA structure would circumvent the problems inhibiting Kyoto’s functionality by increasing the incentives countries have to contribute to pollution abatement, and decreasing the options countries have for free riding. Given this, BTAs may offer an effective alternative for achieving global emissions reductions.

Country Profile: Australia
© Lexxion Verlagsgesellschaft mbH (9/2012)
The OECD recently ranked the Australian economy as the strongest in the developed world. Per capita incomes are among the highest of any country and, despite accounting for less than a third of one percent of the global population, Australia ranks thirteenth by the size of its GDP.

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