New Developments for an Efficient SNCR Monitoring and Regulation System by Evaluating the NOx Mass Flow Profile
© TK Verlag - Fachverlag für Kreislaufwirtschaft (9/2016)
When the SNCR process was introduced first in the eighties of the last century the focus was directed towards applying this low cost technology mainly in combustion plants where only relatively low NOx reduction rates were required. In these types of boilers, like waste-to-energy plants (WtE), the required NOx limits < 200 mg/Nm3 could be maintained easily. Today, NOx limits of 100 mg/Nm3 and lower can be achieved and guaranteed at all operating conditions for these applications. Therefore, the SNCR process represents the Best Available Technology (BAT) today. As a result, more and more owners of waste-to-energy plants take advantage of the low costs at comparable performance and replace their existing SCR system with SNCR.

Innovative Application Methods of Slags from High-Temperature-Gasifying-and-Direct-Melting System
© TK Verlag - Fachverlag für Kreislaufwirtschaft (9/2016)
JFE High-Temperature Gasifying and Direct Melting Furnace System (hereinafter Gasifying and Melting System) was developed to treat any kind of wastes and to contribute to energy and material recovery. Gasifying and Melting System was developed by integrating company’s original technologies for the iron-making blast furnace and fluidized bed for incineration plants, which the company cultivated over many years. The company’s advanced technologies in these two different fields were combined and integrated into the unique Gasifying and Melting System. This system is a proven technology that realizes high performance

Overview of the Waste Management Situation and Planning in Greece
© TK Verlag - Fachverlag für Kreislaufwirtschaft (9/2016)
Waste management has been recognized as one of the most pressing problems in Greece suffering of a low level of organization and relying predominantly on semi-controlled landfills until the end of the previous century [9]. Nevertheless improvements have been made during the last twenty years making the solid waste management in Greece a well-structured, organized and environmentally responsible activity with specific goals, mostly in the urban areas. However, there is a big need of changing the waste Management model. The development of efficient use of resources is the mean of realizing this vision. The transformation of the economy towards a resource-efficient direction will lead to increased competitiveness and new sources of growth and jobs through cost reduction through improved efficiency, commercialization of innovations and better management of resources throughout the duration of cycle life.

Application of Modified NiCrMo Alloy Systems for Boiler Tube Surface Protection in Waste-to-Energy Environments
© TK Verlag - Fachverlag für Kreislaufwirtschaft (9/2016)
Internationally, Waste to Energy and Incineration markets continue to grow in capacity as fossil fueled facilities decline and nuclear generation is curtailed. With this comes a greater need to burn more corrosive materials combust at higher temperatures and extract more energy. The reliability burden that this places on operators of plants is re-opening opportunities for thermal spray solutions as a cost effective solution for boiler tube protection. Where maintenance costs, opportunity costs and access restrictions may preclude alternative in-situ technologies, thermal spray technology may fill a gap in providing new reliable and flexible process and materials technologies for both mid- and long-term protection of water wall and superheater tubes. While historically thermal spray coating solutions have had a spotty record in waste to energy environments, advances in both process and materials technology specifically for WTE environments is such that coating performance now approaches the performance of high alloy wrought materials. This is verified through accurate laboratory modeling and scale tests and trials conducted by OEM’s and plants.

Development of Waste Management in the Arab Region
© TK Verlag - Fachverlag für Kreislaufwirtschaft (9/2016)
The Department of Waste Management and Material Flow of the University of Rostock has been active in Arab countries for over 20 years, and has initiated, carried out and scientifically supervised numerous projects. Waste management and material flow is an important theme in the field of German development cooperation in the MENA regions and has gained in significance in recent years.

Waste Management in India and Experience with the Implementation of Projects Based on Public Private Partnership Model
© TK Verlag - Fachverlag für Kreislaufwirtschaft (9/2016)
Decades of improper Municipal Solid Waste (MSW) Management has resulted in the creation of huge dumpsites in cities. These dumpsites are causing considerable environmental pollution and are full to capacity in most cities. Land for new disposal sites is not easily available due to increasing urbanization and population pressure. In many cases there is considerable protest from surrounding villages for setting up of a new MSW disposal site.

New Waste-to-Energy Facility Energy Works Hull, United Kingdom
© TK Verlag - Fachverlag für Kreislaufwirtschaft (9/2016)
Energy Works Hull (the Project) is a milestone project for the UK’s waste and renewable energy sector. It will be one of the largest gasification facilities receiving MSW in the UK, indeed in Europe. It is one of the first advanced conversion technology Projects to receive its renewable electricity subsidies through a Contract for Difference, the mechanism by which the UK Government determined to move from Renewable Obligation Certificates following its Electricity Market Reform process. It also plays a significant part of the urban regeneration of the City of Hull. The level of community engagement and benefit has resulted in the project receiving a GBP19.9M grant from the European Union’s Regional Development Fund.

Real-time Analysis of Solid Recovered Fuels using Sensor Technology
© TK Verlag - Fachverlag für Kreislaufwirtschaft (12/2015)
Quality assurance plays an important role for the production and utilization of solid recovered fuels (SRF) generated from municipal solid and production waste.

Optimized biological drying for a stable quality of RDF
© Wasteconsult international (5/2015)
The municipal utilities of Neumünster run a MBT plant which produces an annual capacity of 150.000 Mg of RDF from around 150.000 Mg/a residual waste, 32.000 Mg/a bulkywaste and around 60.000 Mg/a high calorific waste. After the comminution of the household waste fraction to parts below 80 mm, as well as parts of the bulky waste fraction to parts below 50 mm, the substance under goes biological drying in a static reactor. The goal is to reach a water content of 20 percent by weight within a drying period of 21 days. Although the drying process and the quality of the RDF have been improved continuously, quality fluctuations concerning the materials’ moisture content still occur. Due to the intensive supervision of the air management during the process of drying fora period of four month, it is now possible to control the drying process even in a static reactor by employing a targeted air Management.

Capacity Building and Fundamental Research to Develop and Implement a Mechanical Biological Treatment Facility with an Integrated Fermentation Stage in Jundiaí-SP, Brazil
© Wasteconsult international (5/2015)
Waste management has changed significantly in the last years, becoming an icon of sustainable development, contributing to environmental protection and guaranteeing the climate protection and the preservation of natural resources. In this context, Brazil passed a National Solid Waste Policy, which provides for selective collection and Treatment of waste before final disposal in the whole country by 2014. The development of technology, technical consulting and state-of-the-art machinery are necessary to implement the Policy. In addition to implementing the new policy, sustainable waste Management systems must be developed to mitigate the environmental impact generated over the last few decades in the country. This poses a considerable challenge due the limited expertise available to develop the necessary technology and to streamline them into the Brazilian market, which, in its turn, results in faltering decision-making at all public levels (federal, state and municipalities) as well as other relevant stakeholders, such as funding and environmental licensing agencies.

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