Polymer Recyclates for Technical Parts - Rec2TecPart
© Lehrstuhl für Abfallverwertungstechnik und Abfallwirtschaft der Montanuniversität Leoben (11/2016)
Society and legislation are focusing more and more on sustainability due to ecological and economic reasons. This means that materials in general have to be used in a more sustainable way and that waste has to be turned into a valuable resource again. Searching for sustainable approaches the resource efficiency has come into play.

Recycling of Phosphorus - Application of Slag and Ashes in Agriculture
© Lehrstuhl für Abfallverwertungstechnik und Abfallwirtschaft der Montanuniversität Leoben (11/2016)
Phosphorus is of essential importance in plant growth and yield. For many decades Thomas slag from basic steelmaking has been a highly appreciated phosphorus fertilizer in agriculture. In the 1960s changes in steelmaking were the reason for declining amounts of phosphorus slag in steelmaking until in the midst 1990s no phosphorus slag was any longer available for agriculture purposes.

Effect of Organic Carbon in MSWI Bottom Ash on the Mobilization of Heavy Metals
© Lehrstuhl für Abfallverwertungstechnik und Abfallwirtschaft der Montanuniversität Leoben (11/2016)
Nowadays municipal solid waste incinerators (MSWI) are playing a major role in waste Management activities. Especially in Switzerland, where the morphology of the country is quite disadvantageous, burning the municipal waste material seems to be the most favorable way to handle These types of waste.

An Investigation on GIS-based Estimation of Municipal Solid Waste Generation
© Lehrstuhl für Abfallverwertungstechnik und Abfallwirtschaft der Montanuniversität Leoben (11/2016)
All planning, design and evaluation practices – from selection of waste bins (i.e. the number and the capacity) to evaluating alternative disposal options and planning Actions for waste reduction – in municipal solid waste (MSW) management depend on the solid waste generation data. Solid waste generation is affected by different aspects. So, setting a general approach (forecasting model) for the estimation of solid waste generation in all regions or cities is impossible. This behavior, in turn, is affected by many other factors. These range from environmental factors to economic and demographic factors. GIS are effective tools for the analysis of spatial variability (distribution) of demographic factors (e.g. population), and thus solid waste generation. This study aims to analyze spatial relationship between MSW generation and demographic factor “population” and estimate solid waste generation rate in Turkey by applying a GIS-based statistical approach.

Resource Recovery from Waste Using the Input Flexibility of Waste Gasification Technology
© TK Verlag - Fachverlag für Kreislaufwirtschaft (9/2016)
Nowadays, gasification of waste or biomass is becoming the great interest all over the world. Especially, gasification of municipal solid waste (MSW) has been well-researched in Japan. The development of MSW gasification technology was started in the 1970s in Japan because of oil crisis. Several technologies have been researched and developed. The Direct Melting System (DMS), which is the gasification and melting technology developed by Nippon Steel & Sumikin Engineering Co., Ltd., is one of the developed waste gasification technologies in this era. This technology was introduced for commercial use in Kamaishi City, Japan in 1979. As well as this waste technology, other gasification technologies have been developed for commercial use and installed.

Future Development of Waste Management in China According to the 13th Five-Year Plan
© TK Verlag - Fachverlag für Kreislaufwirtschaft (9/2016)
Municipal solid waste (MSW) known as trash or garbage consists of food waste, paper, cardboard, plastics, PET, glass, textiles, metals, wood and leather, nappies, slug, ash, etc. are arising from human and animal activities. The rapid development and urbanization of China have resulted in an increasing volume of MSW. So the problem of MSW management has become a major social problem, but one the other hand, because of their intrinsic properties, MSW are often reusable and may be considered a resource for energy recovery. The delivering quantity of household waste averages 179 million tons in China, and the amount of untreated MSW over the years has reached 7 billion tons.

Measures to Implement an Advanced Waste Management System in the Czech Republic
© TK Verlag - Fachverlag für Kreislaufwirtschaft (9/2016)
The Czech Republic is now preparing the new complete revision of waste law. The transformation of the waste management into the circular economy started through the legislative process in June 2016. Waste management plan of the Czech Republic for 2015 to 2024 clearly specifies waste strategy and priorities for the country. Thus, in the Act on waste the ban on landfilling of recyclable and recoverable waste in 2024, obligatory separate collection of main municipal waste streams including biowaste since 2015 and currently proposed increase of waste landfilling tax with strict recycling targets already in 2018 are only the first milestones leading to smarter waste future in the Czech Republic.

Initial Operating Experience with the New Polish Waste-to-Energy Plants
© TK Verlag - Fachverlag für Kreislaufwirtschaft (9/2016)
Waste-to-Energy plants are an integral part of modern municipal Waste Management Systems. Today recycling and energy recovery from waste are the only methods of dealing with municipal waste. This is demonstrated by Waste Management Systems in countries such as Germany, Sweden, the Netherlands, Belgium, Denmark and Austria, where the municipal waste management is limited solely to recycling and energy recovery from waste. The currently discussed concept of the latest circular economy package can hardly change anything in this matter. Poland, as one of the leaders among the new EU member states (since 2004), has still a lot to do within the scope of recycling and waste-to-energy.

Complex Approach towards the Assessment of Waste-to-Energy Plants’ Future Potential
© TK Verlag - Fachverlag für Kreislaufwirtschaft (9/2016)
There is a fierce debate ongoing about future recycling targets for municipal solid waste (MSW) at the European level. The old linear concept of waste management is being changed into a circular economy. Since the separation yield and post-recycling MSW (later on residual solid waste, RSW) production have an opposite relationship, assuming the constant production of particular components (paper, plastics etc.), lower RSW rates are also expected. This is having a negative effect on Waste-to-energy (WtE); especially in terms of its future optimum capacity in particular countries.

Wrong Tracks in Waste Management
© TK Verlag - Fachverlag für Kreislaufwirtschaft (9/2016)
Waste Management is ubiquitous in our everyday life. Economic prosperity and the abundance of materialistic goods imply the generation of waste. In parallel the public awareness for environmentally sound solutions in the field of waste management is raising. This context imposes challenging conditions for political leaders. Often politicians are confronted to take decisions about concepts or investments in waste management without independent expertise. They are approached by vendors of waste treatment technologies or concepts, claiming high environmental and energetic performance, combined with profitable cost – benefit rates.

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