Brownfields, biofuels, biofeedstocks, composts and clos
© European Compost Network ECN e.V. (10/2008)
This paper provides a perspective on the issues of biofuels, marginal land management and the use of recycled organic matter on marginal land for the production of biofuels. It draws on experience from project work in the UK and also highlights the ‘Rejuvenate’ project, which will explore these issues at the European scale.

Soilification: man-made-soil as new resource for agriculture, reforestation and landscaping
© European Compost Network ECN e.V. (10/2008)
The present work showed the methods used for waste treatment methods to be successful and have the benefit of sustainable water purification and soil and waste remediation.

© IWWG International Waste Working Group (10/2007)
Solidification/ stabilization (S/S) is an important technology for treatment of contaminated soil and other industrial wastes: this process reduces the mobility of contaminants in the environment through the use of hydraulic binders and others reagents to chemically stabilize the mix and to convert a soil into a monolithic mass with a low permeability (EA, 2004). Stabilisation/Solidification was used for the treatment of more than 25 % of the American Superfund sites (USEPA, 2001) and is considered a BDAT (Best Demonstrable Available Technology) by the US Environment Protection Agency. Despite its use in North America since the 1960s, there is a lack of data pertaining to field performance of the treated wastes (Klich et al., 1999; Fitch and Cheeseman, 2003; Shi and Spence, 2004) and this has an impact on the confidence of the operators for using the S/S as a remediation method.

© IWWG International Waste Working Group (10/2007)
Nowadays, one of the greatest problems in Third World countries is the inadequate disposal of urban and industrial solid waste on the ground, with severe environmental effects. After the closure of solid residues landfills, a coverage system must be applied to avoid problems, such as residue exposure, excessive increase in the production of lixiviate, migration of gases, etc. In Brazil, the most frequently used system is the conventional one, with a soil layer with plastic and low permeability characteristics, compacted directly over the waste mass. This work aims at investigating the coverage placement with the addition of bentonite to the soil to make it an active layer and to control and/or avoid fissures that impair the quality of coverage behavior.

© IWWG International Waste Working Group (10/2007)
Setup of environmental safety levels for a variety of recycled products is not a simple problem.For a contribution of establishing sustainable waste management, most prefectural governments in Japan have been introducing accreditation systems for recycled products. However, in most cases, environmental criteria for soils by a batch leaching test “JLT-46” (Japanese Environmental Agency, 1995) is substituted, despite the wide-ranging types and lifecycles of recycled products involved. Such inappropriate testing system may lead to both sides of environmental problems: a certain recycled product containing toxic substances may causes environmental pollution (Miyawaki K., Osako M. & al, 2007), or, overestimated requests for the environmental safety may inhibit rational waste utilization. An appropriate evaluation guideline for environmental safety levels of different recycled products is awaited urgently for those prefectural accreditation systems.

Environmental law, the precautionary principle and contaminated sites’ remediation
© IWWG International Waste Working Group (10/2007)
It was only in 1997 – with Art. 17 of Delegated Legislative Decree No. 22/1997 - that Italy started to provide legislation for cleaning up contaminated sites. Two years later, these regulations were completed, with the Regulations approved by Ministerial Decree No. 417/1999, which also fixed the acceptable limits for soil and groundwater contaminationi. Recently, significant innovations were introduced by Delegated Legislative Decree No. 152/2006 (Arts. 239-253 with regard to the administrative regulation of cleaning up; Art. 257 regarding penalties; Annexes 1-5 to Title V of Part IV regarding technical aspects)ii, implementing Delegating Law No. 308/2004. (Session A3: Impact of regulations and legislations)

Agricultural utilization of a liquid manure originated from a biogas plant
© European Compost Network ECN e.V. (9/2006)
SUMMARY: Agriculture contributes significantly to the emission of greenhouse gases, like CH4 and N2O. A purposeful option for mitigation their concentration in the atmosphere is the anaerobic digestion of livestock manure, while the originated CH4 can be utilised as energy source in an on-farm biogas plant.

Contaminants and fertilizers – an assessment concept
© European Compost Network ECN e.V. (9/2006)
SUMMARY: With the resolution to the Federal Soil Protection Act on 17 March 1998 and its entry into force on 1 March 1999 including the corresponding Federal Soil Protection and Contaminated sites Ordinance on 12 July 1999 in Germany the preconditions for federal-unique soil protection were created, as well as benchmarks for a soil referred harmonisation of already existing operational approaches in environmental policy were settled.

Pilot research on source separation and utilisation of bioorganic municipal waste (BMW) in China
© European Compost Network ECN e.V. (9/2006)
Chinese household waste contains at least twice as much bioorganic matter as it is the case in central European countries. Therefore Bioorganic Municipal Waste Management (BMWM) is highly relevant to further improve the current waste disposal practice in China. chicken manure, agglomeration, pellet

Critical loads of risk elements and time trends for their exceedance onagricultural and forest soil of the Czech Republic
© Bayerisches Landesamt für Umwelt (5/2006)
Es wurde die kritische Belastung und der zeitliche Trend für vier Schwermetalle (Cd, Pb, Cu und Zn) in den landwirtschaftlichen und Waldböden ermittelt der modifizierten Methode UN/ECE nach, und zwar für das ganze Gebiet der Tschechischen Republik in den Jahren 1995 – 2000. Die Ergebnisse zeigen, daß der Cd-, Cu- und Zn- Gehalt allmählich steigt, während der Pb-Gehalt zeigte einen abklingenden Trend, vorzugsweise in den Waldböden, wo der heutige Gehalt groß ist.

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