Environmental Impacts of Released Polybrominated Diphenyl Ethers
© Aristotle University of Thessaloniki (6/2009)
In the past several years, polybrominated diphenyl ethers, commonly used in flame retardants, have become widespread environmental pollutants, and have been detected in water, soil, air, animals and human tissues. Exposure occurs in particular through the diet and the indoor environment.

Municipal Solid Waste bio-drying eco-balance and Kyoto protocol
© Wasteconsult international (6/2009)
Bio-drying is a process aimed to Refuse Derived Fuel generation through water evaporation and post-treatment of selection. This option allows avoiding direct combustion of waste and opens to alternative strategies as co-combustion in thermal power plants where the efficiency of electricity generation could be higher than the one of conventional incinerators. The present paper analyses in details a few aspects related to CO2 balances for bio-drying in order to give a contribution to a correct understanding of the process. Keywords: Bio-drying, CO2, emissions, Kyoto Protocol, MSW, RDF 1 Introduction 2 Methods 3 Results and discussion 4 Conclusions

On Global Treaty Relations – Hurdles on the Way towards a Universal Civil Nuclear Liability Regime
© Lexxion Verlagsgesellschaft mbH (1/2009)
„A special regime for third party liability should as far as possible provide a uniform system for all Western European countries. The effects and repercussions of a nuclear incident will not stop at political or geographical frontiers and it is highly desirable that persons on one side of a frontier should be no less well protected than persons on the other side. For these reasons, an international agreement setting up such a regime is desirable. Such an agreement, supplementing the measures applied in the related and important fields of public health and safety and the prevention of accidents, may also facilitate the solution of third party liability problems at a national level.“

Simplifying the Procedures Governing the Accession of a Party to Annex B to the Kyoto Protocol
© Lexxion Verlagsgesellschaft mbH (1/2009)
The Subsidiary Body for Implementation (SBI) under the United Framework Convention on Climate Change concluded in June that the Conference of the Parties serving as the meeting of the Parties to the Protocol (CMP) in December should “determine the necessity of simplifying existing procedures” for inscribing commitments for Annex I Parties in Annex B to the Protocol and “take appropriate action.” This conclusion recalls the ongoing problem that the procedures for joining Annex I of the Convention and Annex B of the Protocol are very timeconsuming and in practice prevent Parties from joining the respective annexes, which this paper illustrates by means of presenting the cases of Kazakhstan, Turkey, Belarus, and other countries. In the negotiating history of the Protocol, as well as in provisions from other regimes, examples of more accessible procedures can be found. They might be used to simplify the current procedures under the Protocol.

Approval of JI and CDM Projects with Germany as Host and Investor Country – An Analysis of the German Project Mechanisms Act
© Lexxion Verlagsgesellschaft mbH (11/2007)
Over the past 30 years, global temperatures have risen continuously by around 0.2°C per decade; the ten warmest years on record have occurred since 1990. Since the discovery of this trend, there has been considerable debate over whether climate change can be attributed to human activities. Although arguments are made against human induced climate change, most scientists nowadays ascribe global warming to an increase in greenhouse gases (GHG) caused by human activities.

Allocation of Greenhouse Gas Allowances in the United States – A Northeastern Example
© Lexxion Verlagsgesellschaft mbH (11/2007)
Arguably the best-known greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions trading initiative in the U.S. is the Regional Greenhouse Gas Initiative (RGGI). As of October 2007, a group of 10 states in the northeastern U.S. have agreed to begin an emissions trading system on 1 January 2009.

Separating the Wheat from the Chaff:Regulating Greenhouse Gases in a Climate of Uncertainty
© Lexxion Verlagsgesellschaft mbH (11/2007)
Reliance on the word “climate” in the title of this article is a deliberate pun. The phenomenon of global climate change requires a drastic reduction of greenhouse gas emissions, especially from the stationary energy sector, if the concentrations of greenhouse gases (GHGs) in the atmosphere are to be contained at current levels and prevented from escalating dramatically in the future.

What can be done to help the development of a UK CCS industry?
© Lexxion Verlagsgesellschaft mbH (11/2007)
This article considers the regulatory regime for carbon capture and storage projects (“CCS projects”) in the United Kingdom (UK). At present the lack of a stable, long-term regulatory and incentive policy framework for CCS projects acts as a barrier to investment. This is compounded by the cumbersome and fragmented approval process. This article explores the current regime and approval process, which requires developers to seek approval for seabed access, electricity generation, marine works and pipelines, coast protection works and onshore works.

Is CO2 capture and storage ready to roll?
© Lexxion Verlagsgesellschaft mbH (11/2007)
Within the context of rising overall awareness of the climate change problem, CO2 capture and storage has risen rapidly on the policy agenda. Some Stakeholders have suggested that technology, cost and legal questions around CCS are all but solved. However, while policymakers embark on the agreement of national, European and international legislation on CCS, a number of challenges arise.

Carbon Capture and Storage: Developments under European Union and International Law
© Lexxion Verlagsgesellschaft mbH (11/2007)
Recent amendments to key international legal regimes and the proposed introduction of an enabling legislative framework within Europe, have highlighted the importance of CCS as a climate mitigation option for the European Union and its Member States. This paper seeks to analyse these developments and provide an up-to-date examination of the issue of regulatory options for CCS and further proposals for the resolution of legal ambiguity.

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