Climate Engineering Research: A Precautionary Response to Climate Change?
© Lexxion Verlagsgesellschaft mbH (6/2013)
In the face of dire forecasts for anthropogenic climate change, climate engineering is increasingly discussed as a possible additional set of responses to reduce climate change’s threat. These proposals have been controversial, in part because they - like climate change itself - pose uncertain risks to the environment and human well-being. Under these challenging circumstances of potential catastrophe and risk-risk trade-off, it is initially unclear to what extent precaution is applicable. We examine what precautionis and is not, and make a prima facie case that climate engineering may provide means to reduce climate risks. When precaution is applied to the currently pertinent matter of small to moderate scale climate engineering field tests, we conclude that precaution encourages them, despite their potential risks.

MBT in Germany and Europe – Development, Status and Outlook
© Arbeitsgemeinschaft Stoffspezifische Abfallbehandlung ASA e.V. (9/2012)
The waste management in Europe has to arrange itself more and more with the guidelines of sustainable resources management and climate change targets. Therefore the material specific waste treatment by the MBT-technology, as a switch point of mass flow separation with energy-efficient treatment and utilisation of the partial streams, offers an ideal starting position. Against this background this conference paper will comment the previous development, the status and the outlook of the Mechanical-Biological-Treatment in Germany and Europe (France, Great Britain, Italy, Austria and Spain).

Flexible management for separate treatment of organic and residual waste in one plant at the waste management centre Rhein-Lahn
© Arbeitsgemeinschaft Stoffspezifische Abfallbehandlung ASA e.V. (9/2012)
In the waste management centre AWZ an MBT pant (Final rotting process) is operated and in addition an organic-waste-treatment plant with a biological drying of the oversize grains for the energy recovery in external biomass power plants. Both technologies are operated almost similarly. At the current optimization of the exhaust air situation, the main focus is on flexible adaptability with respect to future changes. The quantities of the residual- and organic waste could be changed in the future by waste management measures and modified regional partnerships. Currently, experiments are made with the aim to investigate, whether a modification of the MBT from composting-process to a purely biological drying process of the mid-calorific fraction is possible and economically useful. Through the reduction of the duration in the intensive rot phase, a tripling of the throughput is conceivable. The energy efficiency of the plants can be improved significantly. Furthermore, the biogenic content of the mid-calorific fraction could be used as a substitute for fossil fuels.

MBT’s Contribution to Climate Protection and Resource Conservation
© Arbeitsgemeinschaft Stoffspezifische Abfallbehandlung ASA e.V. (9/2012)
Mechanical-biological waste treatment involves the production and separation of waste streams that are subsequently routed to materials or energy recovery. The associated contribution to resource conservation and climate protection and the energy efficiency attained by MBT processes are presented by the example of real-life facilities and compared with the results of other disposal methods. The result of the climate and energy balance strongly depends on the specific configuration and operating conditions of the facility. Despite major variations between the individual facilities, the study demonstrated clear advantages of the MBT facilities examined over alternative processes.The results of the balances provide a basis for identifying potential for the optimization and further development of MBT from both environmental performance and economic aspects.

Institutional Rules in Action: A Multi-Level Analysis of Costa Rica’s Payments for Environmental Services Programme
© Lexxion Verlagsgesellschaft mbH (12/2011)
Healthy ecosystems provide many environmental services (ES) that are indispensable for the wellbeing of humans.1 These services include climate regulation, water regulation, nutrient cycling, soil formation, pollination, and scenic beauty.2 In the past, ES have been undervalued3 since it has often been assumed they are public goods everyone should be able to enjoy free of charge.4 Moreover, private landowners have few economic incentives to protect the service-generating capacity of the ecosystems on their property.

Application of satellite remote sensing and sun-photometers to determine the aerosol optical thickness over Cyprus
© Aristotle University of Thessaloniki (6/2009)
Urban air quality has traditionally been monitored with networks of ground monitoring stations and the use of models that evaluate emissions and predict changes in air quality at discrete points. The increasing availability of earth observing satellite systems together with advances in digital image processing techniques provide a new avenue to monitor urban air quality at a citywide and regional scale.

CFD study on the performance of a cyclone with tangential air inlet operating at high pressure
© Aristotle University of Thessaloniki (6/2009)
A computational fluid dynamic (CFD) study on the pressure drop and collection efficiency of a cyclone separator operating at high pressure (1, 6, 25 and 60 atm) was conducted. The cyclone was a high efficiency Stairmand, with a body diameter (Dc) of 0.3m and tangential air inlet. The inlet velocity was 20 m/s in all cases. Particles with diameters between 0.5 and 10 m and densities of 1500 and 3000 kg/m3 were used. The particle motion was simulated in a Lagrangian frame.

Size distribution of metallic elements in particulate matter from a busy urban area
© Aristotle University of Thessaloniki (6/2009)
This study analyzed size distribution characteristics of metallic elements in airborne particulate matter (PM) collected from a busy urban area in a metropolitan city, Korea. PM samples were collected using an eight-stage cascade impactor during the spring and summer of 2008. Concentrations of the different PM size categories were determined using a micro-balance gravimetric method. Metallic elements on each PM filter were extracted ultrasonically using a 1:1 mixture of hydrochloric and nitric acid.

Seasonal characteristics of particulate matter and metallic elements in a residential area in Ulsan, Korea
© Aristotle University of Thessaloniki (6/2009)
This study investigated mass and metallic elements composition of fine and coarse particles collected in an residential area of Ulsan, Korea. Daily sampling using an eight-stage cascade impactor were conducted from April through August 2008.

Frequency of occurrence of concentrations of air pollutants and their relationship to the established activities in Thriassion Plain – Greece
© Aristotle University of Thessaloniki (6/2009)
In many cases the understating of air pollution and air quality problems requires the knowledge not only of the actual concentrations of the air pollutants, but also of the frequency of occurrence of these concentrations. This information can be used to track the relationship between air pollutants’ concentrations and long-term changes over an area, such as the number of activities and their emissions.

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